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Mortality density forecasts: An analysis of six stochastic mortality models

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Author Info

  • Cairns, Andrew J.G.
  • Blake, David
  • Dowd, Kevin
  • Coughlan, Guy D.
  • Epstein, David
  • Khalaf-Allah, Marwa

Abstract

This paper develops a framework for developing forecasts of future mortality rates. We discuss the suitability of six stochastic mortality models for forecasting future mortality and estimating the density of mortality rates at different ages. In particular, the models are assessed individually with reference to the following qualitative criteria that focus on the plausibility of their forecasts: biological reasonableness; the plausibility of predicted levels of uncertainty in forecasts at different ages; and the robustness of the forecasts relative to the sample period used to fit the model. An important, though unsurprising, conclusion is that a good fit to historical data does not guarantee sensible forecasts. We also discuss the issue of model risk, common to many modelling situations in demography and elsewhere. We find that even for those models satisfying our qualitative criteria, there are significant differences among central forecasts of mortality rates at different ages and among the distributions surrounding those central forecasts.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Insurance: Mathematics and Economics.

Volume (Year): 48 (2011)
Issue (Month): 3 (May)
Pages: 355-367

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Handle: RePEc:eee:insuma:v:48:y:2011:i:3:p:355-367

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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/505554

Related research

Keywords: Plausibility Fan charts Model risk Forecasting Model selection criteria;

References

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Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
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  1. Rob J. Hyndman & Md. Shahid Ullah, 2005. "Robust forecasting of mortality and fertility rates: a functional data approach," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 2/05, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
  2. Carter, Lawrence R. & Lee, Ronald D., 1992. "Modeling and forecasting US sex differentials in mortality," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 393-411, November.
  3. Edouard Debonneuil, 2010. "A simple model of mortality trends aiming at universality: Lee Carter + Cohort," Papers 1003.1802, arXiv.org.
  4. Brouhns, Natacha & Denuit, Michel & Vermunt, Jeroen K., 2002. "A Poisson log-bilinear regression approach to the construction of projected lifetables," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 373-393, December.
  5. Bauwens, Luc & Sucarrat, Genaro, 2010. "General-to-specific modelling of exchange rate volatility: A forecast evaluation," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 885-907, October.
  6. Dowd, Kevin & Cairns, Andrew J.G. & Blake, David & Coughlan, Guy D. & Epstein, David & Khalaf-Allah, Marwa, 2010. "Evaluating the goodness of fit of stochastic mortality models," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(3), pages 255-265, December.
  7. Andrew J. G. Cairns & David Blake & Kevin Dowd, 2006. "A Two-Factor Model for Stochastic Mortality with Parameter Uncertainty: Theory and Calibration," Journal of Risk & Insurance, The American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 73(4), pages 687-718.
  8. Julia Campos & Neil R. Ericsson & David F. Hendry, 2005. "General-to-specific modeling: an overview and selected bibliography," International Finance Discussion Papers 838, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. De Waegenaere, A.M.B. & Melenberg, B. & Stevens, R., 2010. "Longevity risk," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-4578387, Tilburg University.
    • Anja De Waegenaere & Bertrand Melenberg & Ralph Stevens, 2010. "Longevity Risk," De Economist, Springer, vol. 158(2), pages 151-192, June.
  2. Edouard Debonneuil, 2010. "A simple model of mortality trends aiming at universality: Lee Carter + Cohort," Papers 1003.1802, arXiv.org.
  3. Lenny Stoeldraijer & Coen van Duin & L.J.G van Wissen & Fanny Janssen, 2013. "Impact of different mortality forecasting methods and explicit assumptions on projected future life expectancy: The case of the Netherlands," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 29(13), pages 323-354, August.
  4. Biffis, Enrico & Blake, David & Pitotti, Lorenzo & Sun, Ariel, 2011. "The cost of counterparty risk and collateralization in longevity swaps," MPRA Paper 35740, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  5. Adrian Raftery & Nevena Lalic & Patrick Gerland, 2014. "Joint probabilistic projection of female and male life expectancy," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 30(27), pages 795-822, March.
  6. Fanny Janssen & Leo Wissen & Anton Kunst, 2013. "Including the Smoking Epidemic in Internationally Coherent Mortality Projections," Demography, Springer, vol. 50(4), pages 1341-1362, August.
  7. Mitchell, Daniel & Brockett, Patrick & Mendoza-Arriaga, Rafael & Muthuraman, Kumar, 2013. "Modeling and forecasting mortality rates," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(2), pages 275-285.
  8. Blake, David & Brockett, Patrick & Cox, Samuel & MacMinn, Richard, 2011. "Longevity risk and capital markets: The 2009-2010 update," MPRA Paper 28868, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  9. Han Lin Shang & Heather Booth & Rob Hyndman, 2011. "Point and interval forecasts of mortality rates and life expectancy: A comparison of ten principal component methods," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 25(5), pages 173-214, July.
  10. Dowd, Kevin & Cairns, Andrew & Blake, David & Coughlan, Guy & Khalaf-Allah, Marwa, 2011. "A gravity model of mortality rates for two related populations," MPRA Paper 35738, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  11. Carlo Favero & Marco Giacoletti, 2011. "Progress in Medicine, Limits to Life and Forecasting Mortality," Working Papers 406, IGIER (Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research), Bocconi University.
  12. Wolfgang Reichmuth & Samad Sarferaz, 2008. "Bayesian Demographic Modeling and Forecasting: An Application to U.S. Mortality," SFB 649 Discussion Papers SFB649DP2008-052, Sonderforschungsbereich 649, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany.
  13. David Blake & Christophe Courbage & Richard MacMinn & Michael Sherris, 2011. "Longevity Risk and Capital Markets: The 2010–2011 Update," The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance - Issues and Practice, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 36(4), pages 489-500, October.
  14. Rob J Hyndman & Heather Booth & Farah Yasmeen, 2011. "Coherent mortality forecasting: the product-ratio method with functional time series models," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 1/11, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
  15. O’Hare, Colin & Li, Youwei, 2012. "Explaining young mortality," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(1), pages 12-25.
  16. Cairns, Andrew & Dowd, Kevin & Blake, David & Coughlan, Guy, 2011. "Longevity hedge effectiveness: a decomposition," MPRA Paper 34236, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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