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Pricing life insurance under stochastic mortality via the instantaneous Sharpe ratio

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  • Young, Virginia R.
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    Abstract

    We develop a pricing rule for life insurance under stochastic mortality in an incomplete market by assuming that the insurance company requires compensation for its risk in the form of a pre-specified instantaneous Sharpe ratio. Our valuation formula satisfies a number of desirable properties, many of which it shares with the standard deviation premium principle. The major result of the paper is that the price per contract solves a linear partial differential equation as the number of contracts approaches infinity. One can represent the limiting price as an expectation with respect to an equivalent martingale measure. Via this representation, one can interpret the instantaneous Sharpe ratio as a market price of mortality risk. Another important result is that if the hazard rate is stochastic, then the risk-adjusted premium is greater than the net premium, even as the number of contracts approaches infinity. Thus, the price reflects the fact that systematic mortality risk cannot be eliminated by selling more life insurance policies. We present a numerical example to illustrate our results, along with the corresponding algorithms.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Insurance: Mathematics and Economics.

    Volume (Year): 42 (2008)
    Issue (Month): 2 (April)
    Pages: 691-703

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:insuma:v:42:y:2008:i:2:p:691-703

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    Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/505554

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    References

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    1. Dahl, Mikkel & Moller, Thomas, 2006. "Valuation and hedging of life insurance liabilities with systematic mortality risk," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(2), pages 193-217, October.
    2. Ballotta, Laura & Haberman, Steven, 2006. "The fair valuation problem of guaranteed annuity options: The stochastic mortality environment case," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 195-214, February.
    3. Tomas Björk & Irina Slinko, 2006. "Towards a General Theory of Good-Deal Bounds," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 10(2), pages 221-260.
    4. Virginia R. Young, 2007. "Pricing Life Insurance under Stochastic Mortality via the Instantaneous Sharpe Ratio: Theorems and Proofs," Papers 0705.1297, arXiv.org.
    5. Erhan Bayraktar & Virginia R. Young, 2007. "Pricing Options in Incomplete Equity Markets via the Instantaneous Sharpe Ratio," Papers math/0701650, arXiv.org, revised Jul 2007.
    6. Dahl, Mikkel, 2004. "Stochastic mortality in life insurance: market reserves and mortality-linked insurance contracts," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 113-136, August.
    7. Bayraktar, Erhan & Young, Virginia R., 2007. "Hedging life insurance with pure endowments," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 435-444, May.
    8. Carter, Lawrence R. & Lee, Ronald D., 1992. "Modeling and forecasting US sex differentials in mortality," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 393-411, November.
    9. Biffis, Enrico, 2005. "Affine processes for dynamic mortality and actuarial valuations," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 443-468, December.
    10. Blanchet-Scalliet, Christophette & El Karoui, Nicole & Martellini, Lionel, 2005. "Dynamic asset pricing theory with uncertain time-horizon," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 29(10), pages 1737-1764, October.
    11. Schrager, David F., 2006. "Affine stochastic mortality," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 81-97, February.
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    Cited by:
    1. Ballestra, Luca Vincenzo & Ottaviani, Massimiliano & Pacelli, Graziella, 2012. "An operator splitting harmonic differential quadrature approach to solve Young’s model for life insurance risk," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 442-448.
    2. Marcus C. Christiansen, 2013. "Gaussian and Affine Approximation of Stochastic Diffusion Models for Interest and Mortality Rates," Risks, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 1(3), pages 81-100, October.
    3. Huang, Yu-Lieh & Tsai, Jeffrey Tzuhao & Yang, Sharon S. & Cheng, Hung-Wen, 2014. "Price bounds of mortality-linked security in incomplete insurance market," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 30-39.
    4. Huang, Rachel J. & Miao, Jerry C.Y. & Tzeng, Larry Y., 2013. "Does mortality improvement increase equity risk premiums? A risk perception perspective," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(C), pages 67-77.
    5. Chen, Bingzheng & Zhang, Lihong & Zhao, Lin, 2010. "On the robustness of longevity risk pricing," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(3), pages 358-373, December.

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