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Genetically modified crops as real options: Identifying regional and country-specific differences

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  • Nadolnyak, Denis
  • Miranda, Mario J.
  • Sheldon, Ian

Abstract

This paper employs real options methodology for evaluating profitability of genetically modified (GM) crops in volatile market and regulatory environments. Observed instances of market entry, or product introduction, are viewed as outcomes of profit maximizing decisions based on comparison of market entry costs, expected future returns, and the value of managerial flexibility. The process is estimated using simulated maximum likelihood. The estimates suggest that, in the developing countries, the downward volatility of the returns is higher resulting in lower adoption rates, whereas the environment in the top four industrialized GMO adopting countries appears to be costlier but much more optimistic. Commercial success of GM soybean and maize in Argentina, Brazil, and the U.S. is explained mostly by a combination of high upward return volatility and moderate entry costs. The findings may contribute to the general understanding, measurement, and possibilities of controlling the rate of technical advance in biotechnology.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal International Journal of Industrial Organization.

Volume (Year): 29 (2011)
Issue (Month): 4 (July)
Pages: 455-463

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Handle: RePEc:eee:indorg:v:29:y:2011:i:4:p:455-463

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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/505551

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Keywords: Real options Dynamic programming GM crops R&D;

References

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  1. Titman, Sheridan, 1985. "Urban Land Prices under Uncertainty," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(3), pages 505-14, June.
  2. Marco, Alan C. & Rausser, Gordon C., 2007. "The Role of Patent Rights in Mergers: Consolidation in Plant Biotechnology," Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley, Working Paper Series qt2dk2x9hm, Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley.
  3. Marco, Alan C. & Rausser, Gordon C., 2008. "AJAE Appendix: The Role of Patent Rights in Mergers: Consolidation in Plant Biotechnology," American Journal of Agricultural Economics Appendices, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 90(1), February.
  4. Pindyck, Robert S, 1988. "Irreversible Investment, Capacity Choice, and the Value of the Firm," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(5), pages 969-85, December.
  5. Pakes, Ariel S, 1986. "Patents as Options: Some Estimates of the Value of Holding European Patent Stocks," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 54(4), pages 755-84, July.
  6. Brennan, Michael J & Schwartz, Eduardo S, 1985. "Evaluating Natural Resource Investments," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 58(2), pages 135-57, April.
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