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Family versus nonfamily business: A comparison of international strategies

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  • Abdellatif, Mahamat
  • Amann, Bruno
  • Jaussaud, Jacques
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    Abstract

    The internationalization strategies of family businesses versus nonfamily businesses remain a neglected area of study. This investigation uses a sample of 759 Japanese subsidiaries worldwide that can be identified as family businesses or nonfamily businesses to reveal two key results. First, family businesses establish fewer joint ventures than nonfamily businesses, in relative terms, and resort less to using Sôgô Shôsha, or Japanese general trading companies. This result implies family businesses prefer more to remain independent compared with nonfamily businesses. Second, expatriation policies do not differ significantly between family businesses and nonfamily businesses, contrary to a priori expectations. Differences in the strategic behavior of family businesses and nonfamily businesses therefore do not appear in every aspect of the internationalization process.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Family Business Strategy.

    Volume (Year): 1 (2010)
    Issue (Month): 2 (June)
    Pages: 108-116

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:fambus:v:1:y:2010:i:2:p:108-116

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    Related research

    Keywords: Family business Entry modes Joint ventures Wholly owned foreign subsidiaries Sogo Shosha Japan;

    References

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    1. Zellweger, Thomas M. & Eddleston, Kimberly A. & Kellermanns, Franz W., 2010. "Exploring the concept of familiness: Introducing family firm identity," Journal of Family Business Strategy, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 54-63, March.
    2. Zahra, Shaker A., 2003. "International expansion of U.S. manufacturing family businesses: the effect of ownership and involvement," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 495-512, July.
    3. Habbershon, Timothy G. & Williams, Mary & MacMillan, Ian C., 2003. "A unified systems perspective of family firm performance," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 451-465, July.
    4. Luis R. Gomez-Mejia & Marianna Makri & Martin Larraza Kintana, 2010. "Diversification Decisions in Family-Controlled Firms," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47(2), pages 223-252, 03.
    5. Chung, Chris Changwha & Beamish, Paul W., 2005. "Investment mode strategy and expatriate strategy during times of economic crisis," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 331-355, September.
    6. A Delios & W J Henisz, 2003. "Policy uncertainty and the sequence of entry by Japanese firms, 1980–1998," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 34(3), pages 227-241, May.
    7. Jaussaud, Jacques & Schaaper, Johannes, 2006. "Control mechanisms of their subsidiaries by multinational firms: A multidimensional perspective," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 23-45, March.
    8. Harzing, Anne-Wil, 2001. "Of bears, bumble-bees, and spiders: the role of expatriates in controlling foreign subsidiaries," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 36(4), pages 366-379, January.
    9. Jean-Luc Arregle & Michael A. Hitt & David G. Sirmon & Philippe Very, 2007. "The Development of Organizational Social Capital: Attributes of Family Firms," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 44(1), pages 73-95, 01.
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    11. Miller, Danny & Le Breton-Miller, Isabelle & Lester, Richard H. & Cannella Jr., Albert A., 2007. "Are family firms really superior performers?," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 13(5), pages 829-858, December.
    12. Nakiye Boyacigiller, 1990. "The Role of Expatriates in the Management of Interdependence Complexity and Risk in Multinational Corporations," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 21(3), pages 357-381, September.
    13. Meschi, Pierre-Xavier & Riccio, Edson Luiz, 2008. "Country risk, national cultural differences between partners and survival of international joint ventures in Brazil," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 250-266, June.
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    Cited by:
    1. De Massis, Alfredo & Kotlar, Josip & Campopiano, Giovanna & Cassia, Lucio, 2013. "Dispersion of family ownership and the performance of small-to-medium size private family firms," Journal of Family Business Strategy, Elsevier, vol. 4(3), pages 166-175.
    2. Eberhard, Manuel & Craig, Justin, 2013. "The evolving role of organisational and personal networks in international market venturing," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 48(3), pages 385-397.
    3. Patel, Vijay K. & Pieper, Torsten M. & Hair, Joseph F., 2012. "The global family business: Challenges and drivers for cross-border growth," Business Horizons, Elsevier, vol. 55(3), pages 231-239.
    4. Bjursell, Cecilia, 2011. "Cultural divergence in merging family businesses," Journal of Family Business Strategy, Elsevier, vol. 2(2), pages 69-77, June.
    5. Goel, Sanjay & Mazzola, Pietro & Phan, Phillip H. & Pieper, Torsten M. & Zachary, Ramona K., 2012. "Strategy, ownership, governance, and socio-psychological perspectives on family businesses from around the world," Journal of Family Business Strategy, Elsevier, vol. 3(2), pages 54-65.
    6. Grundström, Christina & Öberg, Christina & Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna, 2012. "Family-owned manufacturing SMEs and innovativeness: A comparison between within-family successions and external takeovers," Journal of Family Business Strategy, Elsevier, vol. 3(3), pages 162-173.
    7. Mahamat Abdellatif & Bruno Amann & Jacques Jaussaud, 2010. "International Firm Strategies: Is Cultural Distance a Main Determinant?," Transition Studies Review, Springer, vol. 17(4), pages 611-623, December.
    8. Ducassy, Isabelle & Prevot, Frédéric, 2010. "The effects of family dynamics on diversification strategy: Empirical evidence from French companies," Journal of Family Business Strategy, Elsevier, vol. 1(4), pages 224-235, December.

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