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Top incomes and earnings in Portugal 1936-2005

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  • Alvaredo, Facundo

Abstract

This paper analyzes income and earnings concentration in Portugal from a long-run perspective using personal income and wage tax statistics. The results suggest that income concentration was much higher during the 1930s and early 1940s than it is today. Top income shares estimated from reported incomes deteriorated during the Second World War, even if Portugal did not take active participation in the conflict. However, the magnitude of the drop was less important than in other European countries. The level of concentration between 1950 and 1970 remained relatively high compared to countries such as Spain, France, UK or the United States. The decrease in income concentration, started very moderately at the end of the 1960s and which accelerated after the revolution of 1974, began to be reversed during the first half of the 1980s. During the last 15 years top income shares have increased steadily. The rise in wage concentration contributed to this process in a significant way. The evidence since 1989 suggests that the level of marginal tax rate at the top has not been a primary determinant of the level of top reported incomes. Marginal rates have stayed constant in a context of growing top shares.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Explorations in Economic History.

Volume (Year): 46 (2009)
Issue (Month): 4 (October)
Pages: 404-417

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Handle: RePEc:eee:exehis:v:46:y:2009:i:4:p:404-417

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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/622830

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Keywords: Top incomes Income concentration Portugal Top earnings Income tax;

References

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  1. Alvaredo, Facundo & Saez, Emmanuel, 2009. "Income and Wealth Concentration in Spain from a Historical and Fiscal Perspective," Institute for Research on Labor and Employment, Working Paper Series qt4017h9q3, Institute of Industrial Relations, UC Berkeley.
  2. Makler, Harry M, 1976. " The Portuguese Industrial Elite and Its Corporative Relations: A Study of Compartmentalization in an Authoritarian Regime," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 24(3), pages 495-526, April.
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  6. Jordi Guilera Rafecas, 2008. "Top income shares in Portugal over the twentieth century," Working Papers in Economics 195, Universitat de Barcelona. Espai de Recerca en Economia.
  7. Andrew Leigh & Pierre van der Eng, 2007. "Top Incomes in Indonesia, 1920-2004," CEPR Discussion Papers 549, Centre for Economic Policy Research, Research School of Economics, Australian National University.
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  12. A.B. Atkinson & Andrew Leigh, 2006. "The Distribution of Top Incomes in Australia," CEPR Discussion Papers 514, Centre for Economic Policy Research, Research School of Economics, Australian National University.
  13. Ana Rute Cardoso, 1999. "Firms' wage policies and the rise in labor market inequality: The case of Portugal," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 53(1), pages 87-102, October.
  14. Gouveia, Miguel & Tavares, Jose, 1995. "The Distribution of Household Income and Expenditure in Portugal: 1980 and 1990," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 41(1), pages 1-17, March.
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  16. José A. F. Machado & José Mata, 2001. "Earning functions in Portugal 1982-1994: Evidence from quantile regressions," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 26(1), pages 115-134.
  17. Olga Cantó & Juan F. Jimeno & Ana Rute Cardoso & Mario Izquierdo & Carlos Farinha Rodrigues, . "Integration and Inequality: Lessons from the Accessions of Portugal and Spain to the EU," Working Papers 2000-10, FEDEA.
  18. Cardoso, Ana Rute, 2006. "Wage mobility: do institutions make a difference?," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 387-404, June.
  19. Budria, Santiago & Nunes, Celso, 2005. "Education and Wage Inequality in Portugal," MPRA Paper 1099, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  20. Cardoso, Ana Rute, 1998. "Earnings Inequality in Portugal: High and Rising?," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 44(3), pages 325-43, September.
  21. Santiago Budria & Pedro Telhado Pereira, 2007. "The wage effects of training in Portugal: differences across skill groups, genders, sectors and training types," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(6), pages 787-807.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Salvatore Morelli & Timothy Smeeding & Jeffrey Thompson, 2014. "Post-1970 Trends in Within-Country Inequality and Poverty: Rich and Middle Income Countries," CSEF Working Papers 356, Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), University of Naples, Italy.
  2. John Hatgioannides & Marika Karanassou & Hector Sala, 2013. "Eurozone: The Untold Economics," Working Papers 699, Queen Mary, University of London, School of Economics and Finance.
  3. Anthony B. Atkinson & Thomas Piketty & Emmanuel Saez, 2009. "Top Incomes in the Long Run of History," NBER Working Papers 15408, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Christoph Schinke, 2014. "Government Ideology, Globalization, and Top Income Shares in OECD Countries," Ifo Working Paper Series Ifo Working Paper No. 181, Ifo Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich.

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