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Rigorous classification and carbon accounting principles for low and Zero Carbon Cities

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  • Kennedy, Scott
  • Sgouridis, Sgouris
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    Abstract

    A large number of communities, new developments, and regions aim to lower their carbon footprint and aspire to become "zero carbon" or "Carbon Neutral." Yet there are neither clear definitions for the scope of emissions that such a label would address on an urban scale, nor is there a process for qualifying the carbon reduction claims. This paper addresses the question of how to define a zero carbon, Low Carbon, or Carbon Neutral urban development by proposing hierarchical emissions categories with three levels: Internal Emissions based on the geographical boundary, external emissions directly caused by core municipal activities, and internal or external emissions due to non-core activities. Each level implies a different carbon management strategy (eliminating, balancing, and minimizing, respectively) needed to meet a Net Zero Carbon designation. The trade-offs, implications, and difficulties of implementing carbon debt accounting based upon these definitions are further analyzed.

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    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421511004241
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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Energy Policy.

    Volume (Year): 39 (2011)
    Issue (Month): 9 (September)
    Pages: 5259-5268

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:39:y:2011:i:9:p:5259-5268

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    Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/enpol

    Related research

    Keywords: Sustainable community Eco-city Zero carbon;

    References

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    1. Heather Lovell & Harriet Bulkeley & Diana Liverman, 2009. "Carbon offsetting: sustaining consumption?," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 41(10), pages 2357-2379, October.
    2. Tol, Richard S. J., 2011. "The Social Cost of Carbon," Papers WP377, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI).
    3. Philip Fearnside & Daniel Lashof & Pedro Moura-Costa, 2000. "Accounting for time in Mitigating Global Warming through land-use change and forestry," Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Springer, vol. 5(3), pages 239-270, September.
    4. Sgouridis, Sgouris & Kennedy, Scott, 2010. "Tangible and fungible energy: Hybrid energy market and currency system for total energy management. A Masdar City case study," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(4), pages 1749-1758, April.
    5. Kennedy, Christopher & Steinberger, Julia & Gasson, Barrie & Hansen, Yvonne & Hillman, Timothy & Havránek, Miroslav & Pataki, Diane & Phdungsilp, Aumnad & Ramaswami, Anu & Mendez, Gara Villalba, 2010. "Methodology for inventorying greenhouse gas emissions from global cities," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(9), pages 4828-4837, September.
    6. Bouman, Mathijs & Heijungs, Reinout & van der Voet, Ester & van den Bergh, Jeroen C. J. M. & Huppes, Gjalt, 2000. "Material flows and economic models: an analytical comparison of SFA, LCA and partial equilibrium models," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 195-216, February.
    7. Reiche, Danyel, 2010. "Renewable Energy Policies in the Gulf countries: A case study of the carbon-neutral "Masdar City" in Abu Dhabi," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 378-382, January.
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    Cited by:
    1. Kelly, S. & Pollitt, M. & Crawford-Brown, D., 2012. "Building performance evaluation and certification in the UK: a critical review of SAP?," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 1238, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
    2. Christoforidis, Georgios C. & Chatzisavvas, Konstantinos Ch. & Lazarou, Stavros & Parisses, Costantinos, 2013. "Covenant of Mayors initiative—Public perception issues and barriers in Greece," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 643-655.
    3. Asdrubali, F. & Presciutti, A. & Scrucca, F., 2013. "Development of a greenhouse gas accounting GIS-based tool to support local policy making—application to an Italian municipality," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 587-594.
    4. Pasimeni, Maria Rita & Petrosillo, Irene & Aretano, Roberta & Semeraro, Teodoro & De Marco, Antonella & Zaccarelli, Nicola & Zurlini, Giovanni, 2014. "Scales, strategies and actions for effective energy planning: A review," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 165-174.
    5. Iveroth, Sofie Pandis & Johansson, Stefan & Brandt, Nils, 2013. "The potential of the infrastructural system of Hammarby Sjöstad in Stockholm, Sweden," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 716-726.

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