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Energy Policies of Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries--possibilities and limitations of ecological modernization in rentier states


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  • Reiche, Danyel
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    Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates are major oil and natural gas producing countries that make up the Gulf Cooperation Council. The six GCC countries fall in the top 25 countries of carbon dioxide emissions per capita and are perceived as the main actors blocking international climate change negotiations. The aim of this article is to discuss from a policy perspective the capacities of the GCC states to switch toward an ecological modernization of their energy sectors. At the beginning of the paper, I analyze the benefits of transforming oil wealth into funding for renewable energy and energy efficiency. After this, I discuss obstacles to such a transformation process based on the rentier states theory. Finally, I investigate governance of the GCC on all levels (international, regional, and local). The article shows that the GCC countries have recently adopted a more pro-active approach toward ecological modernization. This reorientation has not yet resulted in the development of consistent strategies and policies, however. The concluding assumption based on the concept of policy transfer is that pioneering projects such as Masdar City and innovative regulation like the green building code in Dubai will spread within the GCC.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Energy Policy.

    Volume (Year): 38 (2010)
    Issue (Month): 5 (May)
    Pages: 2395-2403

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:38:y:2010:i:5:p:2395-2403

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    Keywords: Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Renewable energy Energy efficiency;


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    Cited by:
    1. Radhi, Hassan, 2011. "On the value of decentralised PV systems for the GCC residential sector," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(4), pages 2020-2027, April.
    2. Donatella Baiardi & Matteo Manera & Mario Menegatti, 2014. "The Effects of Environmental Risk on Consumption: an Empirical Analysis on the Mediterranean Countries," Working Papers 2014.43, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    3. Mohamed El Hedi Arouri & Adel Ben Youssef & Hatem M'Henni & Christophe Rault, 2012. "Energy Consumption, Economic Growth and CO2 Emissions in Middle East and North African Countries," CESifo Working Paper Series 3726, CESifo Group Munich.
    4. Sultan, Nabil, 2013. "The challenge of shale to the post-oil dreams of the Arab Gulf," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 13-20.
    5. Mehdi Abbas, 2011. "Carbon border adjustement, trade and climate governance : issues for OPEC economies," Post-Print halshs-00617923, HAL.
    6. Hepbasli, Arif & Alsuhaibani, Zeyad, 2011. "A key review on present status and future directions of solar energy studies and applications in Saudi Arabia," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 15(9), pages 5021-5050.
    7. Radhi, Hassan, 2012. "Trade-off between environmental and economic implications of PV systems integrated into the UAE residential sector," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 16(5), pages 2468-2474.


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