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Offshore wind energy development in the exclusive economic zone: Legal and policy supports and impediments in Germany and the US

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Author Info

  • Portman, Michelle E.
  • Duff, John A.
  • Köppel, Johann
  • Reisert, Jessica
  • Higgins, Megan E.
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    Abstract

    The development of renewable energy as a major component of efforts to combat climate change serves as the impetus for the location of energy production facilities in coastal ocean space. Yet, while many coastal nations see offshore renewable energy development as an important way forward, the speed and manner in which these efforts take shape vary dramatically. This paper assesses the role of coastal nations' domestic legal and policy frameworks in the siting of offshore renewable energy facilities in areas under federal jurisdiction. It focuses on two nations--Germany and the United States. Both have articulated their interest in renewable offshore energy, but while Germany has approved many offshore sites, recent US proposals have for the most part stalled. Based on a review of legal and policy documents, laws and regulations, academic literature, and interviews, this research identifies and compares factors that figure most prominently for the development of offshore renewable energy policies. Comparisons are organized under four categories: the regulatory framework, the public's role in siting, targeted economic mechanisms, and indirect mechanisms. The paper concludes with observations about prominent supports and impediments and suggestions for further research.

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    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6V2W-4WCK0D1-2/2/eb44b40b4f28b1d2400e2702b29fd4ba
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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Energy Policy.

    Volume (Year): 37 (2009)
    Issue (Month): 9 (September)
    Pages: 3596-3607

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:37:y:2009:i:9:p:3596-3607

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    Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/enpol

    Related research

    Keywords: Offshore renewable energy Feed-in tariffs Marine spatial planning USA and Germany;

    References

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    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
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    1. Chupka, Marc W., 2003. "Designing Effective Renewable Markets," The Electricity Journal, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 46-57, May.
    2. Menz, Fredric C., 2005. "Green electricity policies in the United States: case study," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(18), pages 2398-2410, December.
    3. Portman, Michelle, 2009. "Involving the public in the impact assessment of offshore renewable energy facilities," Marine Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 332-338, March.
    4. Wustenhagen, Rolf & Bilharz, Michael, 2006. "Green energy market development in Germany: effective public policy and emerging customer demand," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(13), pages 1681-1696, September.
    5. Enzensberger, N. & Wietschel, M. & Rentz, O., 2002. "Policy instruments fostering wind energy projects--a multi-perspective evaluation approach," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(9), pages 793-801, July.
    6. Pehnt, Martin & Oeser, Michael & Swider, Derk J., 2008. "Consequential environmental system analysis of expected offshore wind electricity production in Germany," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 747-759.
    7. Mulder, Arjen, 2008. "Do economic instruments matter? Wind turbine investments in the EU(15)," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(6), pages 2980-2991, November.
    8. Gillenwater, Michael, 2008. "Redefining RECs--Part 1: Untangling attributes and offsets," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(6), pages 2109-2119, June.
    9. Gan, Lin & Eskeland, Gunnar S. & Kolshus, Hans H., 2007. "Green electricity market development: Lessons from Europe and the US," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 144-155, January.
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    Cited by:
    1. Griffin, Robert, 2013. "Auction designs for allocating wind energy leases on the U.S. outer continentalshelf," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 603-611.
    2. Reiche, Danyel, 2013. "Climate policies in the U.S. at the stakeholder level: A case study of the National Football League," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 775-784.
    3. Liu, Yingqi & Kokko, Ari, 2010. "Wind power in China: Policy and development challenges," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(10), pages 5520-5529, October.

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