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Vertical cooperative advertising and pricing decisions in a manufacturer–retailer supply chain: A game-theoretic approach

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  • Aust, Gerhard
  • Buscher, Udo
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    Abstract

    Manufacturers can increase the advertising expenditures of their retailers by bearing a fraction of the occurring costs within the framework of a vertical cooperative advertising program. We expand the existing research which deals with advertising and pricing decisions in a manufacturer–retailer supply chain contemporaneously. By means of game theory, four different relationships between the channel members are considered: Firstly, three non-cooperative games with either symmetrical distribution of power or asymmetrical distribution with one player being the leader in each case, and one cooperative game where both players tend to maximize the total profit. The latter is complemented by a bargaining model, which proposes a fair split of profit on the basis of the players’ risk attitude and bargaining power. Our main findings are as follows: (a) In contrast to previous analyses, we do not limit the ratio between manufacturer’s and retailer’s margin, which provides more general insights into the effects of the underlying distribution of power within the channel. (b) The highest total profit is gained when both players cooperate. This behavior puts also the customers in a better position, as it produces the lowest retail price as well as the highest advertising expenditures compared to the other configurations.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal European Journal of Operational Research.

    Volume (Year): 223 (2012)
    Issue (Month): 2 ()
    Pages: 473-482

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:ejores:v:223:y:2012:i:2:p:473-482

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    Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/eor

    Related research

    Keywords: Game theory; Cooperative advertising; Pricing; Stackelberg equilibrium; Nash equilibrium;

    References

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    1. Szmerekovsky, Joseph G. & Zhang, Jiang, 2009. "Pricing and two-tier advertising with one manufacturer and one retailer," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 192(3), pages 904-917, February.
    2. Nash, John, 1950. "The Bargaining Problem," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 18(2), pages 155-162, April.
    3. Sang Yong Kim & Richard Staelin, 1999. "Manufacturer Allowances and Retailer Pass-Through Rates in a Competitive Environment," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 18(1), pages 59-76.
    4. SeyedEsfahani, Mir Mehdi & Biazaran, Maryam & Gharakhani, Mohsen, 2011. "A game theoretic approach to coordinate pricing and vertical co-op advertising in manufacturer-retailer supply chains," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 211(2), pages 263-273, June.
    5. Matthew Nagler, 2006. "An exploratory analysis of the determinants of cooperative advertising participation rates," Marketing Letters, Springer, vol. 17(2), pages 91-102, April.
    6. Huang, Zhimin & Li, Susan X., 2001. "Co-op advertising models in manufacturer-retailer supply chains: A game theory approach," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 135(3), pages 527-544, December.
    7. John C. Harsanyi & Reinhard Selten, 1972. "A Generalized Nash Solution for Two-Person Bargaining Games with Incomplete Information," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 18(5-Part-2), pages 80-106, January.
    8. Salma Karray & Georges Zaccour, 2007. "Effectiveness Of Coop Advertising Programs In Competitive Distribution Channels," International Game Theory Review (IGTR), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 9(02), pages 151-167.
    9. Karray, Salma & Zaccour, Georges, 2006. "Could co-op advertising be a manufacturer's counterstrategy to store brands?," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 59(9), pages 1008-1015, September.
    10. Kunter, Marcus, 2012. "Coordination via cost and revenue sharing in manufacturer–retailer channels," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 216(2), pages 477-486.
    11. Yu, Yugang & Huang, George Q., 2010. "Nash game model for optimizing market strategies, configuration of platform products in a Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI) supply chain for a product family," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 206(2), pages 361-373, October.
    12. S. Chan Choi, 1991. "Price Competition in a Channel Structure with a Common Retailer," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 10(4), pages 271-296.
    13. Li, Susan X. & Huang, Zhimin & Zhu, Joe & Chau, Patrick Y. K., 2002. "Cooperative advertising, game theory and manufacturer-retailer supply chains," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 30(5), pages 347-357, October.
    14. Xie, Jinxing & Wei, Jerry C., 2009. "Coordinating advertising and pricing in a manufacturer-retailer channel," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 197(2), pages 785-791, September.
    15. Yue, Jinfeng & Austin, Jill & Wang, Min-Chiang & Huang, Zhimin, 2006. "Coordination of cooperative advertising in a two-level supply chain when manufacturer offers discount," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 168(1), pages 65-85, January.
    16. Jorgensen, Steffen & Taboubi, Sihem & Zaccour, Georges, 2003. "Retail promotions with negative brand image effects: Is cooperation possible?," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 150(2), pages 395-405, October.
    17. Jehoshua Eliashberg, 1986. "Arbitrating a Dispute: A Decision Analytic Approach," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 32(8), pages 963-974, August.
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    Cited by:
    1. Giri, B.C. & Sharma, S., 2014. "Manufacturer's pricing strategy in a two-level supply chain with competing retailers and advertising cost dependent demand," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 102-111.
    2. Khouja, Moutaz & Rajagopalan, Hari K. & Zhou, Jing, 2013. "Analysis of the effectiveness of manufacturer-sponsored retailer gift cards in supply chains," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 230(2), pages 333-347.
    3. Aust, Gerhard & Buscher, Udo, 2014. "Cooperative advertising models in supply chain management: A review," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 234(1), pages 1-14.
    4. Yang, Jing & Xie, Jinxing & Deng, Xiaoxue & Xiong, Huachun, 2013. "Cooperative advertising in a distribution channel with fairness concerns," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 227(2), pages 401-407.

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