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Stature and robusticity during the agricultural transition: Evidence from the bioarchaeological record

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  • Mummert, Amanda
  • Esche, Emily
  • Robinson, Joshua
  • Armelagos, George J.
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    Abstract

    The population explosion that followed the Neolithic revolution was initially explained by improved health experiences for agriculturalists. However, empirical studies of societies shifting subsistence from foraging to primary food production have found evidence for deteriorating health from an increase in infectious and dental disease and a rise in nutritional deficiencies. In Paleopathology at the Origins of Agriculture (Cohen and Armelagos, 1984), this trend towards declining health was observed for 19 of 21 societies undergoing the agricultural transformation. The counterintuitive increase in nutritional diseases resulted from seasonal hunger, reliance on single crops deficient in essential nutrients, crop blights, social inequalities, and trade. In this study, we examined the evidence of stature reduction in studies since 1984 to evaluate if the trend towards decreased health after agricultural transitions remains. The trend towards a decrease in adult height and a general reduction of overall health during times of subsistence change remains valid, with the majority of studies finding stature to decline as the reliance on agriculture increased. The impact of agriculture, accompanied by increasing population density and a rise in infectious disease, was observed to decrease stature in populations from across the entire globe and regardless of the temporal period during which agriculture was adopted, including Europe, Africa, the Middle East, Asia, South America, and North America.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Economics & Human Biology.

    Volume (Year): 9 (2011)
    Issue (Month): 3 (July)
    Pages: 284-301

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:ehbiol:v:9:y:2011:i:3:p:284-301

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    Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/622964

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    Keywords: Stature Skeletal robusticity Agricultural transition Paleopathology;

    References

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    1. John Komlos, 1994. "Stature, Living Standards, and Economic Development: Essays in Anthropometric History," Books by John Komlos, Department of Economics, University of Munich, number 11.
    2. Harold Alderman & John Hoddinott & Bill Kinsey, 2006. "Long term consequences of early childhood malnutrition," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 58(3), pages 450-474, July.
    3. Garcia, Jaume & Quintana-Domeque, Climent, 2007. "The evolution of adult height in Europe: A brief note," Economics & Human Biology, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 340-349, July.
    4. Steckel, Richard H., 2005. "Young adult mortality following severe physiological stress in childhood: Skeletal evidence," Economics & Human Biology, Elsevier, vol. 3(2), pages 314-328, July.
    5. Komlos, John, 1998. "Shrinking in a Growing Economy? The Mystery of Physical Stature during the Industrial Revolution," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 58(03), pages 779-802, September.
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    Cited by:
    1. Gallagher, Andrew, 2013. "Stature, body mass, and brain size: A two-million-year odyssey," Economics & Human Biology, Elsevier, vol. 11(4), pages 551-562.
    2. Gowdy, John & Krall, Lisi, 2013. "The ultrasocial origin of the Anthropocene," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(C), pages 137-147.

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