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Covariance measurement in the presence of non-synchronous trading and market microstructure noise

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  • Griffin, Jim E.
  • Oomen, Roel C.A.

Abstract

This paper studies the problem of covariance estimation when prices are observed non-synchronously and contaminated by i.i.d. microstructure noise. We derive closed form expressions for the bias and variance of three popular covariance estimators, namely realised covariance, realised covariance plus lead and lag adjustments, and the Hayashi and Yoshida estimator, and present a comprehensive investigation into their properties and relative efficiency. Our main finding is that the ordering of the covariance estimators in terms of efficiency crucially depends on the level of microstructure noise, as well as the level of correlation. In fact, for sufficiently high levels of noise, the standard realised covariance estimator (without any corrections for non-synchronous trading) can be most efficient. We also propose a sparse sampling implementation of the Hayashi and Yoshida estimator, study the robustness of our findings using simulations with stochastic volatility and correlation, and highlight some important practical considerations.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Econometrics.

Volume (Year): 160 (2011)
Issue (Month): 1 (January)
Pages: 58-68

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Handle: RePEc:eee:econom:v:160:y:2011:i:1:p:58-68

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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jeconom

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References

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  1. Jim Gatheral & Roel Oomen, 2010. "Zero-intelligence realized variance estimation," Finance and Stochastics, Springer, vol. 14(2), pages 249-283, April.
  2. Bollerslev, Tim & Zhang, Benjamin Y. B., 2003. "Measuring and modeling systematic risk in factor pricing models using high-frequency data," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 10(5), pages 533-558, December.
  3. Lan Zhang & Per A. Mykland & Yacine Ait-Sahalia, 2003. "A Tale of Two Time Scales: Determining Integrated Volatility with Noisy High Frequency Data," NBER Working Papers 10111, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E. & Hansen, Peter Reinhard & Lunde, Asger & Shephard, Neil, 2011. "Multivariate realised kernels: Consistent positive semi-definite estimators of the covariation of equity prices with noise and non-synchronous trading," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 162(2), pages 149-169, June.
  5. Andersen, Torben G & Bollerslev, Tim, 1998. "Answering the Skeptics: Yes, Standard Volatility Models Do Provide Accurate Forecasts," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 39(4), pages 885-905, November.
  6. Takaki Hayashi & Shigeo Kusuoka, 2008. "Consistent estimation of covariation under nonsynchronicity," Statistical Inference for Stochastic Processes, Springer, vol. 11(1), pages 93-106, February.
  7. Jacod, Jean & Li, Yingying & Mykland, Per A. & Podolskij, Mark & Vetter, Mathias, 2009. "Microstructure noise in the continuous case: The pre-averaging approach," Stochastic Processes and their Applications, Elsevier, vol. 119(7), pages 2249-2276, July.
  8. Hansen, Peter R. & Lunde, Asger, 2006. "Realized Variance and Market Microstructure Noise," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 24, pages 127-161, April.
  9. deB. Harris, Frederick H. & McInish, Thomas H. & Shoesmith, Gary L. & Wood, Robert A., 1995. "Cointegration, Error Correction, and Price Discovery on Informationally Linked Security Markets," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 30(04), pages 563-579, December.
  10. Oomen, Roel C.A., 2006. "Properties of Realized Variance Under Alternative Sampling Schemes," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 24, pages 219-237, April.
  11. Torben G. Andersen & Tim Bollerslev & Francis X. Diebold & Paul Labys, 2001. "Modeling and Forecasting Realized Volatility," NBER Working Papers 8160, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Ole E. Barndorff-Nielsen & Shephard, 2002. "Econometric analysis of realized volatility and its use in estimating stochastic volatility models," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 64(2), pages 253-280.
  13. Dimson, Elroy, 1979. "Risk measurement when shares are subject to infrequent trading," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(2), pages 197-226, June.
  14. Cohen, Kalman J. & Hawawini, Gabriel A. & Maier, Steven F. & Schwartz, Robert A. & Whitcomb, David K., 1983. "Friction in the trading process and the estimation of systematic risk," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(2), pages 263-278, August.
  15. Valeri Voev & Asger Lunde, 2007. "Integrated Covariance Estimation using High-frequency Data in the Presence of Noise," Journal of Financial Econometrics, Society for Financial Econometrics, vol. 5(1), pages 68-104.
  16. Takaki Hayashi & Nakahiro Yoshida, 2008. "Asymptotic normality of a covariance estimator for nonsynchronously observed diffusion processes," Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics, Springer, vol. 60(2), pages 367-406, June.
  17. Hautsch, Nikolaus & Kyj, Lada M. & Hautsch, Nikolaus, 2009. "A blocking and regularization approach to high dimensional realized covariance estimation," CFS Working Paper Series 2009/20, Center for Financial Studies (CFS).
  18. Qianqiu Liu, 2009. "On portfolio optimization: How and when do we benefit from high-frequency data?," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 24(4), pages 560-582.
  19. Zhou, Bin, 1996. "High-Frequency Data and Volatility in Foreign-Exchange Rates," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 14(1), pages 45-52, January.
  20. Jim Griffin & Roel Oomen, 2008. "Sampling Returns for Realized Variance Calculations: Tick Time or Transaction Time?," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 27(1-3), pages 230-253.
  21. Bandi, Federico M. & Russell, Jeffrey R., 2006. "Separating microstructure noise from volatility," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 79(3), pages 655-692, March.
  22. Scholes, Myron & Williams, Joseph, 1977. "Estimating betas from nonsynchronous data," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(3), pages 309-327, December.
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