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Conflict between groups of players in coupled socio-economic and ecological dynamics

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  • Suzuki, Yukari
  • Iwasa, Yoh
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    Abstract

    Conflict among multiple groups is a major source of difficulty in environmental conservation. People are often divided into various groups that have different social factors, sometimes leading to differences in the degree to which they cooperate in environmental conservation. This obstructs the social consensus needed to solve the environmental problems. Here we study the coupled dynamics of human socio-economic choice and lake water pollution, and examine the magnitude of the difference in cooperation levels between two groups. In the model, many players choose between a costly but cooperative option and a selfish option. The former results in a reduced phosphorus discharge into the lake. Each player's choice is affected by an economic cost and social pressure. Social pressure is a psychological factor that promotes cooperation: it becomes stronger when more players in the society are cooperative (conformist tendency) and when the problem at hand is a greater concern to society. In the model, two groups sometimes show large differences in their cooperation levels even when both have exactly the same social factors. However, cooperation levels are more likely to differ between groups that have different social factors. Enhancement of the cross-group conformist tendency is the most effective way to minimize differences in cooperation levels and to mitigate conflict between groups.

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    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VDY-4TD9JDB-1/2/47f00f6abbdd70247d0209683ae2c9d0
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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Ecological Economics.

    Volume (Year): 68 (2009)
    Issue (Month): 4 (February)
    Pages: 1106-1115

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:ecolec:v:68:y:2009:i:4:p:1106-1115

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    Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/ecolecon

    Related research

    Keywords: Regime shift Eutrophication Social dilemma Evolutionary game theory Social pressure;

    References

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    1. Urs Fischbacher & Simon Gaechter & Ernst Fehr, . "Are People Conditionally Cooperative? Evidence from a Public Goods Experiment," IEW - Working Papers 016, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics - University of Zurich.
    2. Satake, Akiko & Janssen, Marco A. & Levin, Simon A. & Iwasa, Yoh, 2007. "Synchronized deforestation induced by social learning under uncertainty of forest-use value," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(2-3), pages 452-462, August.
    3. Ernst Fehr & Simon Gaechter, 1999. "Cooperation and Punishment in Public Goods Experiments," CESifo Working Paper Series 183, CESifo Group Munich.
    4. Iwasa, Yoh & Uchida, Tomoe & Yokomizo, Hiroyuki, 2007. "Nonlinear behavior of the socio-economic dynamics for lake eutrophication control," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(1), pages 219-229, June.
    5. Pillutla, Madan M. & Chen, Xiao-Ping, 1999. "Social Norms and Cooperation in Social Dilemmas: The Effects of Context and Feedback, , ," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 78(2), pages 81-103, May.
    6. Kjell Arne Brekke & Snorre Kverndokk & Karinen Nyborg, 2000. "An Economic Model of Moral Motivation," Discussion Papers 290, Research Department of Statistics Norway.
    7. Brock, William A. & de Zeeuw, Aart, 2002. "The repeated lake game," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 76(1), pages 109-114, June.
    8. Dechert, W.D. & O'Donnell, S.I., 2006. "The stochastic lake game: A numerical solution," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 30(9-10), pages 1569-1587.
    9. McKelvey Richard D. & Palfrey Thomas R., 1995. "Quantal Response Equilibria for Normal Form Games," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 6-38, July.
    10. Nyborg, Karine & Rege, Mari, 2003. "On social norms: the evolution of considerate smoking behavior," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 52(3), pages 323-340, November.
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    Cited by:
    1. Reuveny, Rafael & Maxwell, John W. & Davis, Jefferson, 2011. "On conflict over natural resources," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(4), pages 698-712, February.

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