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Economic and environmental impacts of trade liberalization: The case of Indonesia

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  • Gumilang, Howard
  • Mukhopadhyay, Kakali
  • Thomassin, Paul J.
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    Abstract

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the environmental impacts of trade liberalization. This paper provides further discourse in this area with a study on Indonesia and its trade agreements with Japan (IJEPA) and ASEAN (AFTA). A static global CGE model, known as the Global Trade Analysis Project, was used to project the Indonesian economy to the year 2022, with and without tariff reforms agreed under the agreements. Environmental impacts are assessed using different pollution indicators--air, water and waste. The study suggests that Indonesia would grow rapidly over the period considered with a large deterioration in its environment. Following these, however, the agreements only have a marginal positive impact on Indonesia's output but with a noticeable increase in trade flows and signs of trade diversion. Overall AFTA has a greater impact on the Indonesian economy compared to IJEPA. Similarly, the impact of trade liberalization on the environment is marginal. On the whole, tariff reform is inducing air pollution and reducing water pollution. In conclusion, the study suggests that Indonesia's participation in the AFTA and IJEPA agreements is not likely to bring drastic changes to her economic and environmental performance.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Economic Modelling.

    Volume (Year): 28 (2011)
    Issue (Month): 3 (May)
    Pages: 1030-1041

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:ecmode:v:28:y:2011:i:3:p:1030-1041

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    Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/30411

    Related research

    Keywords: IJEPA AFTA GTAP Indonesia Environment;

    References

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    1. Peter J. Lloyd & Donald Maclaren, 2004. "Gains and Losses from Regional Trading Agreements: A Survey," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 80(251), pages 445-467, December.
    2. Anna Strutt & Kym Anderson, 2000. "Will Trade Liberalization Harm the Environment? The Case of Indonesia to 2020," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 17(3), pages 203-232, November.
    3. Shujiro Urata & Kozo Kiyota, 2003. "The Impacts of an East Asia FTA on Foreign Trade in East Asia," NBER Working Papers 10173, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Jong-Wha Lee & Innwon Park, 2005. "Free Trade Areas in East Asia: Discriminatory or Non-discriminatory?," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 28(1), pages 21-48, 01.
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    6. World Bank, 2007. "World Development Indicators 2007," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 8150, March.
    7. Lee, Hiro & Roland-Holst, David, 1997. "The environment and welfare implications of trade and tax policy," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(1), pages 65-82, February.
    8. Innwon Park, 2006. "East Asian Regional Trade Agreements: Do They Promote Global Free Trade?," Pacific Economic Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 11(4), pages 547-568, December.
    9. Ballard, Charles L. & Cheong, Inkyo, 1997. "The effects of economic integration in the Pacific Rim: A computational general equilibrium analysis," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(4), pages 505-524.
    10. Betina Dimaranan & Elena Ianchovichina & Will Martin, 2009. "How will growth in China and India affect the world economy?," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 145(3), pages 551-571, October.
    11. Djoni Hartono & D.S. Priyarsono & Tien Dung Nguyen & Mitsuo Ezaki, 2007. "Regional Economic Integration and its Impacts on Growth, Poverty and Income Distribution: The Case of Indonesia," Working Papers in Economics and Development Studies (WoPEDS) 200703, Department of Economics, Padjadjaran University, revised Mar 2007.
    12. Dessus, Sebastien & Bussolo, Maurizio, 1998. "Is There a Trade-off Between Trade Liberalization and Pollution Abatement?: A Computable General Equilibrium Assessment Applied to Costa Rica," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 11-31, February.
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