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Modeling services liberalization: The case of Kenya

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  • Balistreri, Edward J.
  • Rutherford, Thomas F.
  • Tarr, David G.

Abstract

This paper employs a 55 sector small open economy computable general equilibrium model of the Kenyan economy to assess the impact of the liberalization of regulatory barriers against foreign and domestic business service providers in Kenya. The model incorporates foreign direct investment in business services and productivity effects in imperfectly competitive goods and services markets endogenously, through a Dixit-Stiglitz framework. The ad valorem equivalent of barriers to foreign direct investment have been estimated based on detailed questionnaires completed by specialists in Kenya. We estimate very substantial gains to Kenya from regulatory liberalization in business services, and additional gains from uniform tariffs. The estimated gains increase to 50% of consumption in the long run steady state model, where the impact on the accumulation of capital from an improvement in the productivity of capital is taken into account. Decomposition exercises reveal that the largest gains to Kenya will derive from liberalization of costly regulatory barriers that are non-discriminatory in their impacts between Kenyan and multinational service providers.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Economic Modelling.

Volume (Year): 26 (2009)
Issue (Month): 3 (May)
Pages: 668-679

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Handle: RePEc:eee:ecmode:v:26:y:2009:i:3:p:668-679

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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/30411

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Keywords: Services Foreign direct investment Endogenous productivity effects Computable general Equilibrium modeling Kenya;

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References

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  1. Harrison, Glenn W & Rutherford, Thomas F & Tarr, David G, 1997. "Quantifying the Uruguay Round," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 107(444), pages 1405-30, September.
  2. David E. Weinstein & Christian Broda, 2004. "Globalization And The Gains From Variety," Econometric Society 2004 Latin American Meetings 327, Econometric Society.
  3. Harrison, Glenn W & Rutherford, Thomas F & Tarr, David G, 1993. "Trade Reform in the Partially Liberalized Economy of Turkey," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 7(2), pages 191-217, May.
  4. Terje Hansen & Tjalling C. Koopmans, 1972. "On the Definition and Computation of a Capital Stock Invariant Under Optimization," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 313R, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  5. Balistreri, Edward J. & Rutherford, Thomas F. & Tarr, David G., 2009. "Modeling services liberalization: The case of Kenya," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 26(3), pages 668-679, May.
  6. Ana M. Fernandes, 2009. "Structure and performance of the service sector in transition economies," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 17(3), pages 467-501, 07.
  7. Arnold, Jens M. & Javorcik, Beata S. & Mattoo, Aaditya, 2011. "Does services liberalization benefit manufacturing firms?: Evidence from the Czech Republic," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 85(1), pages 136-146, September.
  8. Konan, Denise Eby & Maskus, Keith E., 2006. "Quantifying the impact of services liberalization in a developing country," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 81(1), pages 142-162, October.
  9. Jensen, Jesper & Rutherford, Thomas & Tarr, David, 2004. "The impact of liberalizing barriers to foreign direct investment in services - the case of Russian accession to the World Trade Organization," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3391, The World Bank.
  10. Rutherford, Thomas F, 1999. "Applied General Equilibrium Modeling with MPSGE as a GAMS Subsystem: An Overview of the Modeling Framework and Syntax," Computational Economics, Society for Computational Economics, vol. 14(1-2), pages 1-46, October.
  11. Fernandes, Ana M. & Paunov, Caroline, 2008. "Foreign direct investment in services and manufacturing productivity growth: evidence for Chile," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4730, The World Bank.
  12. Rodrik, Dani & Subramanian, Arvind & Trebbi, Francesco, 2002. "Institutions Rule: The Primacy of Institutions Over Geography and Integration in Economic Development," CEPR Discussion Papers 3643, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  13. Dixit, Avinash K & Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1975. "Monopolistic Competition and Optimum Product Diversity," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 64, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
  14. Brown, D.K. & Stern, R.M., 1999. "Measurement and Modeling of the Economic Effects of Trade and Investment Barriers in Services," Working Papers 453, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan.
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  16. Tybout, James R. & Westbrook, M. Daniel, 1995. "Trade liberalization and the dimensions of efficiency change in Mexican manufacturing industries," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(1-2), pages 53-78, August.
  17. James Markusen & Thomas Rutherford & David Tarr, 2005. "Trade and direct investment in producer services and the domestic market for expertise," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 38(3), pages 758-777, August.
  18. Thomas F. Rutherford & David G. Tarr, 2003. "Regional Trading Arrangements for Chile: do the Results Differ with a Dynamic Model?," Economie Internationale, CEPII research center, issue 94-95, pages 261-281.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Christen, Elisabeth & Francois, Joseph & Hoekman, Bernard, 2013. "Computable General Equilibrium Modeling of Market Access in Services," Handbook of Computable General Equilibrium Modeling, Elsevier.
  2. Jensen, Jesper & Tarr, David G., 2011. "Deep trade policy options for Armenia: The importance of trade facilitation, services and standards liberalization," Economics Discussion Papers 2011-33, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
  3. World Bank, 2010. "Reform and Regional Integration of Professional Services in East Africa : Time for Action," World Bank Other Operational Studies 2957, The World Bank.
  4. Chisari, Omar O. & Maquieyra, Javier & Romero, Carlos A., 2009. "Liberalization of trade in services: A CGE analysis for Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay," MPRA Paper 15336, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  5. Elisabeth Christen & Joseph Francois & Bernard Hoekman, 2012. "CGE modeling of market access in services," Working Papers 2012-13, Faculty of Economics and Statistics, University of Innsbruck.
  6. Balistreri, Edward J. & Rutherford, Thomas F. & Tarr, David G., 2008. "Modeling services liberalization : the case of Kenya," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4544, The World Bank.
  7. Bianka Dettmer, 2012. "Business services outsourcing and economic growth: Evidence from a dynamic panel data approach," Jena Economic Research Papers 2012-049, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Max-Planck-Institute of Economics.
  8. Francois, Joseph & Hoekman, Bernard, 2009. "Services Trade and Policy," CEPR Discussion Papers 7616, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  9. Gordan Stojić, 2012. "Using Fuzzy Logic for Evaluating the Level of Countries’ (Regions’) Economic Development," Panoeconomicus, Savez ekonomista Vojvodine, Novi Sad, Serbia, vol. 59(3), pages 293-310, June.
  10. World Bank, 2012. "Kazakhstan : Assessment of Costs and Benefits of the Customs," World Bank Other Operational Studies 12299, The World Bank.
  11. repec:asi:ajoerj:2013:p:911-932 is not listed on IDEAS
  12. World Bank, 2012. "Assessment of Costs and Benefits of the Customs Union for Kazakhstan," World Bank Other Operational Studies 2722, The World Bank.
  13. Tarr, David G., 2013. "Putting Services and Foreign Direct Investment with Endogenous Productivity Effects in Computable General Equilibrium Models," Handbook of Computable General Equilibrium Modeling, Elsevier.

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