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The composition of capital inflows when emerging market firms face financing constraints

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  • Smith, Katherine A.
  • Valderrama, Diego

Abstract

The composition of capital inflows to emerging market economies tends to follow a predictable dynamic pattern across the business cycle. In most emerging market economies, total inflows are pro-cyclical, with debt and portfolio equity flowing in first, followed later in the expansion by foreign direct investment (FDI). To understand the dynamic composition of these flows, we use a small open economy (SOE) framework to model the composition of capital inflows as the equilibrium outcome of emerging market firms' financing decisions. We show how costly external financing and FDI search costs generate a state contingent cost of financing such that the cheapest source of financing depends on the phase of the business cycle. In this manner, the financial frictions are able to explain the interaction between the types of flows and deliver a time-varying composition of flows, as well as other standard features of emerging market business cycles. If, as this work suggests, flows are an equilibrium outcome of firms' financing decisions, then volatility of capital inflows is not necessarily bad for an economy. Furthermore, using capital controls to shut down one type of flow and encourage another is certain to have both short- and long-run welfare implications.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Development Economics.

Volume (Year): 89 (2009)
Issue (Month): 2 (July)
Pages: 223-234

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Handle: RePEc:eee:deveco:v:89:y:2009:i:2:p:223-234

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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/devec

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Keywords: Capital inflow composition Financing premium Financial frictions Small open economy;

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Cited by:
  1. Calderon, Cesar & Kubota, Megumi, 2011. "Sudden stops : are global and local investors alike ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5569, The World Bank.
  2. Nan Li, 2008. "Cyclical Wage Movements in Emerging Markets Compared to Developed Economies: the Role of Interest Rates," 2008 Meeting Papers 438, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  3. Silvio Contessi & Pierangelo De Pace & Johanna L. Francis, 2010. "Changes in the second-moment properties of disaggregated capital flows," Working Papers 2010-020, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
  4. Joshua Aizenman & Ilan Noy, 2008. "Links between Trade and Finance: A Disaggregated Analysis," NBER Chapters, in: Financial Markets Volatility and Performance in Emerging Markets, pages 9-28 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Nan Li, 2007. "Cyclical Wage Movements in Emerging Markets Compared to Developed Economies: A Contractual Approach," Discussion Papers 06-026, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research.
  6. Contessi, Silvio & De Pace, Pierangelo & Francis, Johanna L., 2013. "The cyclical properties of disaggregated capital flows," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 528-555.
  7. Contessi, Silvio & De Pace, Pierangelo, 2009. "Do European capital flows comove?," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 145-161, August.
  8. Diego Valderrama & Katherine Smith, 2009. "Why Do Emerging Economies Import Direct Investment and Export Savings? A Story of Financial Underdevelopment," 2009 Meeting Papers 1160, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  9. Katherine A. Smith, 2011. "Can Financing Constraints Explain The Asset Pricing Puzzles In Production Economies?," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 52(3), pages 739-765, 08.
  10. Katheryn N. Russ & Diego Valderrama, 2009. "Financial choice in a non-Ricardian model of trade," Working Paper Series 2009-27, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
  11. John C Bluedorn & Rupa Duttagupta & Jaime Guajardo & Petia Topalova, 2013. "Capital Flows are Fickle," IMF Working Papers 13/183, International Monetary Fund.
  12. Jinjarak, Yothin & Wongswan, Jon & Zheng, Huanhuan, 2011. "International fund investment and local market returns," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 572-587, March.
  13. Broto, Carmen & Díaz-Cassou, Javier & Erce, Aitor, 2011. "Measuring and explaining the volatility of capital flows to emerging countries," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(8), pages 1941-1953, August.
  14. Silvio Contessi & Pierangelo De Pace, 2011. "The (non-)resiliency of foreign direct investment in the United States during the 2007-2009 financial crisis," Working Papers 2011-037, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.

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