Impacts of trade liberalisation on aggregate import in Bangladesh: An ARDL Bounds test approach
AbstractBangladesh has been liberalising its trade regime extensively since 1992 in order to achieve higher trade performance and GDP growth. However, despite the long period of liberalisation, imports are still growing faster than exports, increasing the trade deficit. Trade liberalisation is considered a crucial contributory factor. The paper examines the impact of trade liberalisation on the aggregate import in Bangladesh, using the ARDL Bounds Test approach with annual time series data from 1972-1973 to 2004-2005. Empirical results suggest that trade liberalisation through reduction of the import duty rate increases the aggregate import substantially in the short run, but insignificantly in the long run. Trade liberalisation using simplification of non-tariff measures shows a significant but low positive impact on the aggregate import in the long run. Liberalisation interaction with price decreases imports slightly hence improves the trade balance, while interaction with income increases imports slightly hence worsens the trade balance. An increase in imports is mainly stimulated by an increase in income. Moreover, higher income elasticity compared to price elasticity indicates that an effort to maintain imports at the desired level by increasing import duty could be counter balanced and ineffective. Therefore, a consistent policy to promote not only consumption of domestically produced products, but investment, production, and backward linkage industries is essential in order to improve the trade balance and GDP growth in Bangladesh.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Asian Economics.
Volume (Year): 21 (2010)
Issue (Month): 1 (February)
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/asieco
Trade liberalisation Aggregate import ARDL 'Bounds test' Short run and long run impacts Interaction impacts;
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Bardsen, Gunnar, 1989. "Estimation of Long Run Coefficients in Error Correction Models," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 51(3), pages 345-50, August.
- M. Hashem Pesaran & Yongcheol Shin & Richard J. Smith, 2001. "Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(3), pages 289-326.
- Charalambos Pattichis, 1999. "Price and income elasticities of disaggregated import demand: results from UECMs and an application," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 31(9), pages 1061-1071.
- Banerjee, Anindya & Dolado, Juan J. & Galbraith, John W. & Hendry, David, 1993. "Co-integration, Error Correction, and the Econometric Analysis of Non-Stationary Data," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198288107.
- Joseph E. Stiglitz, 2000. "Two Principles for the Next Round or, How to Bring Developing Countries in from the Cold," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 23(04), pages 437-454, 04.
- Subrata Ghatak & Jalal Siddiki, 2001. "The use of the ARDL approach in estimating virtual exchange rates in India," Journal of Applied Statistics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 28(5), pages 573-583.
- Anisul Islam & M. Kabir Hassan, 2004. "An econometric estimation of the aggregate import demand function for Bangladesh: some further results," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(9), pages 575-580.
- Miller, Stephen M. & Upadhyay, Mukti P., 2000. "The effects of openness, trade orientation, and human capital on total factor productivity," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(2), pages 399-423, December.
- N. Emmanuel Tambi, 1998. "Trade liberalization effects on commodity imports in Cameroon," Journal of Economic Studies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 25(3), pages 193-202, September.
- Shahe Emran, M. & Shilpi, Forhad, 1996. "Foreign exchange rationing and the aggregate import demand function," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 51(3), pages 315-322, June.
- Sachs, Jeffrey D & Shatz, Howard J, 1996. "U.S. Trade with Developing Countries and Wage Inequality," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(2), pages 234-39, May.
- Mohsen Bahmani-Oskooee & A. B. M. Nasir, 2004. "ARDL Approach to Test the Productivity Bias Hypothesis," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 8(3), pages 483-488, 08.
- Marashdeh, Hazem, 2005. "Stock Market Integration in the MENA Region: An Application of the ARDL Bounds Testing Approach," Economics Working Papers wp05-27, School of Economics, University of Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
- Carmen Reinhart, 1994.
"Devaluation, Relative Prices, and International Trade: Evidence from Developing Countries,"
IMF Working Papers
94/140, International Monetary Fund.
- Carmen M. Reinhart, 1995. "Devaluation, Relative Prices, and International Trade: Evidence from Developing Countries," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 42(2), pages 290-312, June.
- Reinhart, Carmen, 1995. "Devaluation, Relative Prices, and International Trade: Evidence from Developing Countries," MPRA Paper 6974, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Hendry, David F., 1995. "Dynamic Econometrics," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198283164.
- Chee-Keong Choong & Siong-Hook Law & Zulkornain Yusop & Soo Siew Choo, 2005. "Export-led Growth Hypothesis in Malaysia: A Revisit," The IUP Journal of Monetary Economics, IUP Publications, vol. 0(4), pages 26 - 42, November.
- Marashdeh, Hazem & Saleh, Ali Salman, 2006. "Revisiting Budget and Trade Deficits in Lebanon: A Critique," Economics Working Papers wp06-07, School of Economics, University of Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
- Tuck Cheong Tang & Mahendhiran Nair, 2002. "A cointegration analysis of Malaysian import demand function: reassessment from the bounds test," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(5), pages 293-296.
- Martin KHOR, 2000. "Globalization And The South: Some Critical Issues," UNCTAD Discussion Papers 147, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
- Edwards, Sebastian, 1993. "Openness, Trade Liberalization, and Growth in Developing Countries," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 31(3), pages 1358-93, September.
- Khatun, Fahmida & Ahamad, Mazbahul G., 2012. "Investigating the determinants of inflationary trends in Bangladesh: an ARDL bounds F-Test Approach," MPRA Paper 42572, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Fuinhas, José Alberto & Marques, António Cardoso, 2012. "Energy consumption and economic growth nexus in Portugal, Italy, Greece, Spain and Turkey: An ARDL bounds test approach (1965–2009)," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 511-517.
- Mustafizur Rahman & Mazbahul Golam Ahamad & A K M Nazrul Islam & Muhammad Al Amin, 2012. "Agricultural Trade between Bangladesh and India: An Analysis of Trends, Trading Patterns and Determinants," CPD-CMI Working Paper 3, Centre for Policy Dialogue (CPD).
- Chassem, Nacisse Palissy, 2011.
"Hypothèse de Thirlwall: cas des pays de la zone Franc
[Thirlwall’s hypothesis : the case of countries of the Franc Zone]," MPRA Paper 29990, University Library of Munich, Germany.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.