Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login

The impact of farm credit in Pakistan

Contents:

Author Info

  • Khandker, Shahidur R.
  • Faruqee, Rashid R.

Abstract

Both formal, and informal loans matter in agriculture. But formal lenders provide much more in production lending, than do informal lenders, often at a higher cost than what they can recover. The Agricultural Development Bank of Pakistan (ADBP), for example, providing about 90 percent of formal loans in rural areas, incurs high costs on loan defaults. Like other governments, the Government of Pakistan subsidized the formal scheme on the grounds that lending to agriculture is a high-risk activity, because of covariate risk. Because farm credit schemes are subsidized, policymakers must know if these schemes are worth supporting. Using recent data from a large household survey from rural Pakistan, the authors estimate the cost-effectiveness of the ADBP loans. To estimate credit's impact, they use a two-stage method, which takes into account the endogeneity of borrowing. Clearly, formal lenders are biased toward larger farmers with collateral. Large landowners, who tend to represent only four percent of rural households, get 42 percent of formal loans. Landless, and subsistence farmers, who represent more than 69 percent of rural households, receive only 23 percent of formal loans. ADBP loans improve household welfare but, although large farmers receive most of ADBP finance, the impact of credit is greater for small farmers than for large farmers. Large landowners use formal loans unproductively. Because the ADBP scheme is subsidized, it is not cost-effective for delivering rural credit. It would be more cost-effective is small farmers were better targeted instead.

(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)

Download Info

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T3V-4840VJN-1/2/cafa078b608b7ee913fd5ee4e63eb8f9
Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Blackwell in its journal Agricultural Economics.

Volume (Year): 28 (2003)
Issue (Month): 3 (May)
Pages: 197-213

as in new window
Handle: RePEc:eee:agecon:v:28:y:2003:i:3:p:197-213

Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/agec

Related research

Keywords:

Other versions of this item:

References

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
as in new window
  1. Feder, Gershon & Lau, Lawrence J. & Lin, Justin Y. & Xiaopeng Luo, 1991. "Credit's effect on productivity in Chinese agriculture : a microeconomic model of disequilibrium," Policy Research Working Paper Series 571, The World Bank.
  2. Habib A. Zuberi, 1989. "Production Function, Institutional Credit and Agricultural Development in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 28(1), pages 43-56.
  3. Binswanger, Hans & Khandker, Shahidur, 1992. "The impact of formal finance on the rural economy of India," Policy Research Working Paper Series 949, The World Bank.
  4. Aleem, Irfan, 1990. "Imperfect Information, Screening, and the Costs of Informal Lending: A Study of a Rural Credit Market in Pakistan," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 4(3), pages 329-49, September.
  5. Pitt, M.M. & Khandker, S.R., 1996. "Household and Intrahousehold Impact of the Grameen Bank and Similar Targeted Credit Programs in Bangladesh," World Bank - Discussion Papers 320, World Bank.
  6. Carter, Michael R., 1988. "Equilibrium credit rationing of small farm agriculture," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 83-103, February.
  7. Udry, Christopher, 1990. "Credit Markets in Northern Nigeria: Credit as Insurance in a Rural Economy," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 4(3), pages 251-69, September.
  8. Mark M. Pitt & Shahidur R. Khandker, 1998. "The Impact of Group-Based Credit Programs on Poor Households in Bangladesh: Does the Gender of Participants Matter?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 106(5), pages 958-996, October.
  9. Sohail J. Malik & Mohammad Mushtaq & Manzoor A. Gill, 1991. "The Role of Institutional Credit in the Agricultural Development of Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 30(4), pages 1039-1048.
  10. Hoff, Karla & Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1990. "Imperfect Information and Rural Credit Markets--Puzzles and Policy Perspectives," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 4(3), pages 235-50, September.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

Citations

Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
as in new window

Cited by:
  1. World Bank, 2002. "Pakistan Development Policy Review : A New Dawn?," World Bank Other Operational Studies 15425, The World Bank.
  2. Chloupkova, Jarka & Bjornskov, Christian, 2001. "Reaping the Gains from Trade: Constraints and Opportunities of Agricultural Credit Markets," Unit of Economics Working papers 24189, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Food and Resource Economic Institute.
  3. Nguyen Viet Cuong & Minh Thu Pham & Nguyet Pham Minh & Vu Thieu & Duong Toan, 2007. "Poverty Targeting and Impact of a Governmental Micro-credit Program in Vietnam," Working Papers PMMA 2007-29, PEP-PMMA.
  4. Gustavo Anriquez & Alberto Valdes, 2006. "Determinants of Farm Revenue in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 45(2), pages 281-301.
  5. Zezza, Alberto & Winters, Paul C. & Davis, Benjamin & Carletto, Calogero & Covarrubias, Katia & Quinones, Esteban & Stamoulis, Kostas G. & Di Giuseppe, Stefania, 2007. "Rural Household Access to Assets and Agrarian Institutions: A Cross Country Comparison," 106th Seminar, October 25-27, 2007, Montpellier, France 7925, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
  6. Widiyanto bin Mislan Cokro Hadisumarto & Abdul Ghafar B. Ismail, 2010. "Improving the effectiveness of Islamic micro-financing: Learning from BMT experience," Humanomics: The International Journal of Systems and Ethics, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 26(1), pages 65-75, February.
  7. Swaminathan, Hema & Findeis, Jill L., 2003. "Impact Of Credit On Labor Allocation And Consumption Patterns In Malawi," 2003 Annual meeting, July 27-30, Montreal, Canada 22118, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  8. Cuong H. Nguyen, 2007. "Determinants of Credit Participation and Its Impact on Household Consumption: Evidence From Rural Vietnam," CERT Discussion Papers 0703, Centre for Economic Reform and Transformation, Heriot Watt University.
  9. repec:ebl:ecbull:v:15:y:2006:i:12:p:1-8 is not listed on IDEAS
  10. James Roumasset, 2004. "Rural Institutions, Agricultural Development, and Pro-poor Economic Growth," Asian Journal of Agriculture and Development, Southeast Asian Regional Center for Graduate Study and Research in Agriculture, vol. 1(1), pages 61-82, June.
  11. Phinseng Channgakham, 2006. "The effects of a fertilizer loan on dry-season rice cultivated areas in Laos," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 15(12), pages 1-8.
  12. M. A. Baqui Khalily, 2004. "Quantitative approach to impact analysis of microfinance programmes in Bangladesh-what have we learned?," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(3), pages 331-353.

Lists

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

Statistics

Access and download statistics

Corrections

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:agecon:v:28:y:2003:i:3:p:197-213. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei).

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.