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Signal extraction and the formulation of unobserved components models

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  • ANDREW HARVEY
  • SIEM JAN KOOPMAN

Abstract

This paper looks at unobserved components models and examines the implied weighting patterns for signal extraction. There are four main themes. The first concerns the implications of correlated disturbances driving the components, especially those cases in which the correlation is perfect. The second is about the way in which ARIMA-based methods for trend extraction relate to those based on unobserved components. The third explores the impact of heteroscedasticity and irregular spacing and shows how setting up models with t -distributed disturbances leads to weighting patterns which are robust to outliers and breaks. Finally, a comparison is made between implied weighting patterns with kernels used in non-parametric trend estimation and equivalent kernels used in spline smoothing. It is demonstrated that with irregularly spaced data, the weighting used by conventional spline smoothing techniques is not the same as that obtained from the time series model based approach.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Royal Economic Society in its journal The Econometrics Journal.

Volume (Year): 3 (2000)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pages: 84-107

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Handle: RePEc:ect:emjrnl:v:3:y:2000:i:1:p:84-107

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Keywords: Cubic splines; Kalman filter and smoother; Kernels; Robustness; Structural time series model; Trend; Wiener–Kolmogorov filter.;

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  1. Ghysels, E. & Harvey, A. & Renault, E., 1996. "Stochastic Volatility," Cahiers de recherche 9613, Centre interuniversitaire de recherche en économie quantitative, CIREQ.
  2. HÄRDLE, Wolfgang, 1992. "Applied nonparametric methods," CORE Discussion Papers 1992003, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
  3. Shephard, N. & Pitt, M.K., 1995. "Likelihood Analysis of Non-Gaussian Parameter-Driven Models," Economics Papers 108, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
  4. Hodrick, Robert J & Prescott, Edward C, 1997. "Postwar U.S. Business Cycles: An Empirical Investigation," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 29(1), pages 1-16, February.
  5. Watson, Mark W., 1986. "Univariate detrending methods with stochastic trends," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 49-75, July.
  6. Harvey, A C & Jaeger, A, 1993. "Detrending, Stylized Facts and the Business Cycle," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 8(3), pages 231-47, July-Sept.
  7. I. Gijbels & A. Pope & M. P. Wand, 1999. "Understanding exponential smoothing via kernel regression," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 61(1), pages 39-50.
  8. J. Durbin & S. J. Koopman, 2000. "Time series analysis of non-Gaussian observations based on state space models from both classical and Bayesian perspectives," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 62(1), pages 3-56.
  9. Koopman, Siem Jan & Harvey, Andrew, 2003. "Computing observation weights for signal extraction and filtering," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 27(7), pages 1317-1333, May.
  10. Siem Jan Koopman & Neil Shephard & Jurgen A. Doornik, 1999. "Statistical algorithms for models in state space using SsfPack 2.2," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 2(1), pages 107-160.
  11. Oliver LINTON, . "Applied nonparametric methods," Statistic und Oekonometrie 9312, Humboldt Universitaet Berlin.
  12. Sandmann, Gleb & Koopman, Siem Jan, 1998. "Estimation of stochastic volatility models via Monte Carlo maximum likelihood," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 87(2), pages 271-301, September.
  13. Ord, J.K. & Koehler, A. & Snyder, R.D., 1995. "Estimation and Prediction for a Class of Dynamic Nonlinear Statistical Models," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 4/95, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
  14. Proietti, Tommaso & Harvey, Andrew, 2000. "A Beveridge-Nelson smoother," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 67(2), pages 139-146, May.
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