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Becoming an Adult in Europe: A Macro(/Micro)-Demographic Perspective

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  • FFF1Francesco NNN1Billari

    (Bocconi University, Milan)

Abstract

Extreme cases in demography are important challenges for researchers, and the still important heterogeneity of European societies is a blessing for scholars interested in studying the importance of cultural and institutional factors. In the transition to adulthood the "latest-late" pattern of Southern Europe cohabits with its opposite "earliest-early" pattern of the Nordic countries. In this paper, I discuss multifaceted approaches to the explanation of why becoming an "adult" in Europe appears so diverse. I use secondary data analyses and present cross-country correlations: welfare state and institutional arrangements, historical and deeply rooted cultural differences, as well as economic and policy factors, and ideational change. Moreover, micro-level determinants play different roles in different societies. Future research on the transition to adulthood in Europe needs to be multilevel, comparative and interdisciplinary, and to consider the potential implication of persistent differences in patterns.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany in its journal Demographic Research Special Collections.

Volume (Year): 3 (2004)
Issue (Month): 2 (April)
Pages: 15-44

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Handle: RePEc:dem:drspec:v:3:y:2004:i:2

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Web page: http://www.demogr.mpg.de/

Related research

Keywords: comparative demography; cross-country relationships; earliest-early; Europe; latest-late; micro-macro; transition to adulthood;

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References

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  1. Persson, Torsten & Tabellini, Guido, 1997. "Political Economics and Macroeconomic Policy," CEPR Discussion Papers 1759, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  2. Kohler, Hans-Peter, 2001. "Fertility and Social Interaction: An Economic Perspective," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, Oxford University Press, number 9780199244591, October.
  3. Francesco C. Billari & Hans-Peter Kohler, 2002. "Patterns of lowest-low fertility in Europe," MPIDR Working Papers WP-2002-040, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
  4. Ahn, N. & Mira, P., 1999. "A Note on the Changing Relationship Between Fertility and Female Employment Rates in Developed Countries," Papers, Centro de Estudios Monetarios Y Financieros- 9903, Centro de Estudios Monetarios Y Financieros-.
  5. Kenneth W. Wachter, 2003. "The past, present and future of demography and the role of the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research," MPIDR Working Papers WP-2003-011, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
  6. Pau Baizán & Arnstein Aassve & Francesco C. Billari, 2002. "Institutional arrangements and life course outcomes: the interrelations between cohabitation, marriage and first birth in Germany and Sweden," MPIDR Working Papers WP-2002-026, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
  7. Michael F. Förster, 2000. "Trends and Driving Factors in Income Distribution and Poverty in the OECD Area," OECD Labour Market and Social Policy Occasional Papers 42, OECD Publishing.
  8. Tomas Kögel, 2001. "Did the association between fertility and female employment within OECD countries really change its sign?," MPIDR Working Papers WP-2001-034, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
  9. Henriette Engelhardt & Alexia Prskawetz, 2002. "On the changing correlation between fertility and female employment over space and time," MPIDR Working Papers WP-2002-052, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
  10. FFF1Johan NNN1Surkyn & FFF2Ron NNN2Lesthaeghe, 2004. "Value Orientations and the Second Demographic Transition (SDT) in Northern, Western and Southern Europe: An Update," Demographic Research Special Collections, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 3(3), pages 45-86, April.
  11. Francesco C. Billari & Chris Wilson, 2001. "Convergence towards diversity? Cohort dynamics in the transition to adulthood in contemporary Western Europe," MPIDR Working Papers WP-2001-039, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
  12. Andres Vikat & Zsolt Spéder & Gijs Beets & Francesco Billari & Christoph Bühler & Aline Desesquelles & Tineke Fokkema & Jan M. Hoem & Alphonse MacDonald & Gerda Neyer & Ariane Pailhé & Antonella Pinne, 2007. "Generations and Gender Survey (GGS)," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 17(14), pages 389-440, November.
  13. Gerda R. Neyer, 2003. "Family policies and low fertility in Western Europe," MPIDR Working Papers WP-2003-021, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
  14. Kenneth W. Wachter, 2003. "The past, present, and future of demography and the role of the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 9(4), pages 69-80, October.
  15. Francesco C. Billari & Piero Manfredi & Alessandro Valentini, 1999. "Macro-demographic effects of the transition to adulthood: multistate stable population theory and an application to Italy," MPIDR Working Papers WP-1999-014, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
  16. Neyer, Gerda, 2003. "Family Policies and Low Fertility in Western Europe," Discussion Paper, Center for Intergenerational Studies, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University 161, Center for Intergenerational Studies, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
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Cited by:
  1. Tomas Sobotka & Laurent Toulemon, 2008. "Overview Chapter 4: Changing family and partnership behaviour," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 19(6), pages 85-138, July.
  2. Arnstein Aassve & Elena Cottini & Agnese Vitali, 2013. "Youth Vulnerability in Europe during the Great Recession," Working Papers 057, "Carlo F. Dondena" Centre for Research on Social Dynamics (DONDENA), Università Commerciale Luigi Bocconi.
  3. Arnstein Aassve & Elena Cottini & Agnese Vitali, 2013. "Youth prospects in a time of economic recession," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 29(36), pages 949-962, November.
  4. Gerda R. Neyer & Gunnar Andersson, 2007. "Consequences of family policies on childbearing behavior: effects or artifacts?," MPIDR Working Papers WP-2007-021, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
  5. Pearl A. Dykstra & Aafke Komter, 2012. "Generational interdependencies in families," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 27(18), pages 487-506, October.
  6. Christin Schröder, 2008. "The influence of parents on cohabitation in Italy - Insights from two regional contexts," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 19(48), pages 1693-1726, September.
  7. Stefano Mazzuco & Letizia Mencarini & Rosella Rettaroli, 2006. "Similarities and differences between two cohorts of young adults in Italy," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 15(5), pages 105-146, September.
  8. Christin Schröder, 2008. "Economic insecurity and cohabitation strategies in Italy," MPIDR Working Papers WP-2008-004, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
  9. Katia Begall, 2013. "How do educational and occupational resources relate to the timing of family formation? A couple analysis of the Netherlands," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 29(34), pages 907-936, October.
  10. Olivier Thevenon, 2009. "Does fertility respond to work and family reconciliation policies in France?," Working Papers hal-00424832, HAL.
  11. Nicoletta Balbo & Nicola Barban, 2012. "Does fertility behavior spread among friends?," Working Papers 050, "Carlo F. Dondena" Centre for Research on Social Dynamics (DONDENA), Università Commerciale Luigi Bocconi.
  12. Francesco C. Billari & Guido Tabellini, 2010. "Italians Are Late: Does It Matter?," NBER Chapters, in: Demography and the Economy, pages 371-412 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

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