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Point and interval forecasts of mortality rates and life expectancy: A comparison of ten principal component methods

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Author Info

  • Han Lin Shang

    (Australian National University)

  • Heather Booth

    (Australian National University)

  • Rob Hyndman

    (Monash University)

Abstract

Using the age- and sex-specific data of 14 developed countries, we compare the point and interval forecast accuracy and bias of ten principal component methods for forecasting mortality rates and life expectancy. The ten methods are variants and extensions of the Lee-Carter method. Based on one-step forecast errors, the weighted Hyndman-Ullah method provides the most accurate point forecasts of mortality rates and the Lee-Miller method is the least biased. For the accuracy and bias of life expectancy, the weighted Hyndman-Ullah method performs the best for female mortality and the Lee-Miller method for male mortality. While all methods underestimate variability in mortality rates, the more complex Hyndman-Ullah methods are more accurate than the simpler methods. The weighted Hyndman-Ullah method provides the most accurate interval forecasts for mortality rates, while the robust Hyndman-Ullah method provides the best interval forecast accuracy for life expectancy.

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File URL: http://www.demographic-research.org/volumes/vol25/5/25-5.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany in its journal Demographic Research.

Volume (Year): 25 (2011)
Issue (Month): 5 (July)
Pages: 173-214

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Handle: RePEc:dem:demres:v:25:y:2011:i:5

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Web page: http://www.demogr.mpg.de/

Related research

Keywords: forecasting; forecasting time series; interval forecasts; Lee-Carter method; life expectancy; mortality forecasting; principal components analysis;

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References

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  1. Piet De Jong & Leonie Tickle, 2006. "Extending Lee-Carter Mortality Forecasting," Mathematical Population Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(1), pages 1-18.
  2. Lawrence R. Carter & Alexia Prskawetz, 2001. "Examining structural shifts in mortality using the Lee-Carter method," MPIDR Working Papers WP-2001-007, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
  3. Rob J Hyndman & Heather Booth, 2006. "Stochastic population forecasts using functional data models for mortality, fertility and migration," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 14/06, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
  4. Arthur Renshaw & Steven Haberman, 2003. "Lee-Carter mortality forecasting: a parallel generalized linear modelling approach for England and Wales mortality projections," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series C, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 52(1), pages 119-137.
  5. Rob J. Hyndman & Yeasmin Khandakar, 2007. "Automatic time series forecasting: the forecast package for R," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 6/07, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
  6. Carter, Lawrence R. & Lee, Ronald D., 1992. "Modeling and forecasting US sex differentials in mortality," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 393-411, November.
  7. Cairns, Andrew J.G. & Blake, David & Dowd, Kevin & Coughlan, Guy D. & Epstein, David & Khalaf-Allah, Marwa, 2011. "Mortality density forecasts: An analysis of six stochastic mortality models," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(3), pages 355-367, May.
  8. Bircan Erbas & Rob J. Hyndman & Dorota M. Gertig, 2005. "Forecasting age-specific breast cancer mortality using functional data models," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 3/05, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
  9. Rob J. Hyndman & Md. Shahid Ullah, 2005. "Robust forecasting of mortality and fertility rates: a functional data approach," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 2/05, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
  10. Heather Booth & Rob Hyndman & Leonie Tickle & Piet de Jong, 2006. "Lee-Carter mortality forecasting: a multi-country comparison of variants and extensions," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 15(9), pages 289-310, October.
  11. Renshaw, A.E. & Haberman, S., 2006. "A cohort-based extension to the Lee-Carter model for mortality reduction factors," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 556-570, June.
  12. Booth, Heather, 2006. "Demographic forecasting: 1980 to 2005 in review," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 547-581.
  13. Nico Keilman & Dinh Quang Pham & Arve Hetland, 2002. "Why population forecasts should be probabilistic - illustrated by the case of Norway," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 6(15), pages 409-454, May.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Han Lin Shang, 2012. "Point and interval forecasts of age-specific life expectancies," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 27(21), pages 593-644, November.
  2. Rob J Hyndman & Heather Booth & Farah Yasmeen, 2011. "Coherent mortality forecasting: the product-ratio method with functional time series models," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 1/11, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
  3. Nan Li & Ronald Lee & Patrick Gerland, 2013. "Extending the Lee-Carter Method to Model the Rotation of Age Patterns of Mortality Decline for Long-Term Projections," Demography, Springer, vol. 50(6), pages 2037-2051, December.
  4. Lenny Stoeldraijer & Coen van Duin & L.J.G van Wissen & Fanny Janssen, 2013. "Impact of different mortality forecasting methods and explicit assumptions on projected future life expectancy: The case of the Netherlands," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 29(13), pages 323-354, August.
  5. Han Lin Shang, 2012. "Point and interval forecasts of age-specific fertility rates: a comparison of functional principal component methods," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 10/12, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
  6. Adrian Raftery & Nevena Lalic & Patrick Gerland, 2014. "Joint probabilistic projection of female and male life expectancy," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 30(27), pages 795-822, March.
  7. Fanny Janssen & Leo Wissen & Anton Kunst, 2013. "Including the Smoking Epidemic in Internationally Coherent Mortality Projections," Demography, Springer, vol. 50(4), pages 1341-1362, August.
  8. Alexander Dokumentov & Rob J Hyndman, 2014. "Low-dimensional decomposition, smoothing and forecasting of sparse functional data," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 16/14, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.

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