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Children's stunting in sub-Saharan Africa: Is there an externality effect of high fertility?

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Author Info

  • Øystein Kravdal

    (University of Oslo)

  • Ivy Kodzi

    (Ohio State University)

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    Abstract

    A positive relationship between the number of siblings and a child’s chance of being stunted has been seen in several studies. It is possible that individual stunting risks are also raised by high fertility in the community, partly because of the impact of aggregate fertility on the local economy, but this issue has not been addressed in earlier investigations. In this study we estimate the independent effect of the child dependency ratio in the province (or governorate, region, or larger geopolitical zone within a country), using DHS data on up to 145,000 children in 152 provinces in 23 countries with at least two such surveys. The data design allows inclusion of lagged province variables and province fixed effects (to control for constant unobserved province characteristics). Three types of regression models for a child’s chance of being stunted are estimated. Some estimates suggest an adverse effect of the current child dependency ratio, net of the child’s number of siblings, while others do not point in this direction. When the child dependency ratio measured in an earlier survey is included instead, no significant effects appear. Thus, we conclude that there is only weak support for the idea that a child’s stunting risk may be raised by high fertility in the community.

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    File URL: http://www.demographic-research.org/volumes/vol25/18/25-18.pdf
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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany in its journal Demographic Research.

    Volume (Year): 25 (2011)
    Issue (Month): 18 (September)
    Pages: 565-594

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    Handle: RePEc:dem:demres:v:25:y:2011:i:18

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    Web page: http://www.demogr.mpg.de/

    Related research

    Keywords: Africa; consequences of high fertility; externality; fertility; multilevel; province; siblings; stunting;

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    References

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    1. Filmer, Deon & Pritchett, Lant, 1998. "Estimating wealth effects without expenditure data - or tears : with an application to educational enrollments in states of India," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1994, The World Bank.
    2. Derek D. Headey & Andrew Hodge, 2009. "The Effect of Population Growth on Economic Growth: A Meta-Regression Analysis of the Macroeconomic Literature," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 35(2), pages 221-248.
    3. Avan, Bilal Iqbal & Kirkwood, Betty, 2010. "Role of neighbourhoods in child growth and development: Does 'place' matter?," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 71(1), pages 102-109, July.
    4. Øystein Kravdal, 2003. "The problematic estimation of "imitation effects" in multilevel models," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 9(2), pages 25-40, September.
    5. Li, Hongbin & Zhang, Junsen & Zhu, Yi, 2007. "The Quantity-Quality Tradeoff of Children in a Developing Country: Identification Using Chinese Twins," IZA Discussion Papers 3012, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
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    7. Frost, Michelle Bellessa & Forste, Renata & Haas, David W., 2005. "Maternal education and child nutritional status in Bolivia: finding the links," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 60(2), pages 395-407, January.
    8. repec:phd:dpaper:pjd_2006_vol._xxxiii_nos._1and2-b is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Bloom, David E & Williamson, Jeffrey G, 1998. "Demographic Transitions and Economic Miracles in Emerging Asia," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 12(3), pages 419-55, September.
    10. Glewwe, Paul & Jocoby, Hanan & King, Elizabeth M., 1999. "Early childhood nutrition and academic achievement," FCND discussion papers 68, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    11. Kelley, Allen C. & Schmidt, Robert M., 1995. "Aggregate Population and Economic Growth Correlations: The Role of the Components of Demographic Change," Working Papers 95-37, Duke University, Department of Economics.
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