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Effects of education on second births before and after societal transition: Evidence from the Estonian GGS

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  • Martin Klesment

    (Estonian Institute for Population Studies, Tallinn University)

  • Allan Puur

    (Tallinn University)

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    Abstract

    This article examines the influence of educational attainment and enrolment on second births in Estonia, comparing the patterns before and after the onset of the societal transformation of the 1990s. While many Northern and Western European countries have shown a positive relationship between female education and second births, this pattern has not been found in Central and East European countries. Against that background, Estonia offers an interesting case with noticeably high second birth intensities for highly educated women. In the state socialist period, after controlling for the influence of other characteristics, including the partner's education, women with tertiary education were found to have higher second birth intensity than women from any lower educational strata. In the postsocialist period, the difference has grown smaller, but women with tertiary education still display a significantly higher transition rate to second birth than their counterparts with secondary education. Following the presentation of empirical findings, the article discusses the mechanisms that could underlie the observed relationship between education and fertility decisions in the changing societal context. The analysis employs microdata from the Estonian Generations and Gender Survey (GGS), conducted in 2004-05.

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    File URL: http://www.demographic-research.org/volumes/vol22/28/22-28.pdf
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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany in its journal Demographic Research.

    Volume (Year): 22 (2010)
    Issue (Month): 28 (May)
    Pages: 891-932

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    Handle: RePEc:dem:demres:v:22:y:2010:i:28

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    Web page: http://www.demogr.mpg.de/

    Related research

    Keywords: economic transition; educational attainment; Estonia; Generations and Gender Survey (GGS); second births;

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    References

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    1. Gunnar Andersson & Marit Rønsen & Lisbeth B. Knudsen & Trude Lappegård & Gerda Neyer & Kari Skrede & Kathrin Teschner & Andres Vikat, 2009. "Cohort Fertility Patterns in the Nordic Countries," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 20(14), pages 313-352, April.
    2. Kalev Katus & Asta Põldma & Allan Puur & Luule Sakkeus, 2007. "First union formation in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania: patterns across countries and gender," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 17(10), pages 247-300, November.
    3. Øystein Kravdal, 2001. "The High Fertility of College Educated Women in Norway," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 5(6), pages 187-216, December.
    4. Marit Rønsen, 2004. "Fertility and family policy in Norway - A reflection on trends and possible connections," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 10(10), pages 265-286, June.
    5. Rivo Noorkoiv & Peter F. Orazem & Allan Puur & Milan Vodopivec, 1998. "Employment and wage dynamics in Estonia, 1989-95," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 6(2), pages 481-503, November.
    6. Mette Gerster & Niels Keiding & Lisbeth B. Knudsen & Katrine Strandberg-Larsen, 2007. "Education and second birth rates in Denmark 1981-1994," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 17(8), pages 181-210, November.
    7. Jan M. Hoem & Michaela Kreyenfeld, 2006. "Anticipatory analysis and its alternatives in life-course research," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 15(17), pages 485-498, November.
    8. Jan M. Hoem & Alexia Prskawetz & Gerda R. Neyer, 2001. "Autonomy or conservative adjustment? The effect of public policies and educational attainment on third births in Austria," MPIDR Working Papers, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany WP-2001-016, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
    9. Christine Schwartz & Robert Mare, 2005. "Trends in educational assortative marriage from 1940 to 2003," Demography, Springer, Springer, vol. 42(4), pages 621-646, November.
    10. Cornelia Muresan, 2007. "Educational attainment and second births in Romania," MPIDR Working Papers, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany WP-2007-028, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
    11. S. Philip Morgan, 2003. "Is low fertility a twenty-first-century demographic crisis?," Demography, Springer, Springer, vol. 40(4), pages 589-603, November.
    12. Jan M. Hoem & Michaela Kreyenfeld, 2006. "Anticipatory analysis and its alternatives in life-course research," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 15(16), pages 461-484, November.
    13. Tomas Sobotka & Laurent Toulemon, 2008. "Overview Chapter 4: Changing family and partnership behaviour," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 19(6), pages 85-138, July.
    14. Jan M. Hoem & Michaela Kreyenfeld, 2006. "Anticipatory analysis and its alternatives in life-course research. Part 2: Marriage and first birth," MPIDR Working Papers, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany WP-2006-007, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
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    Cited by:
    1. Francesca Fiori & Francesca Rinesi & Antonella Pinnelli & Sabrina Prati, 2013. "Economic Insecurity and the Fertility Intentions of Italian Women with One Child," Population Research and Policy Review, Springer, Springer, vol. 32(3), pages 373-413, June.
    2. Tamás Bartus & Lívia Murinkó & Ivett Szalma & Bernadett Szél, 2013. "The effect of education on second births in Hungary," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 28(1), pages 1-32, January.
    3. Sunnee Billingsley & Allan Puur & Luule Sakkeus, 2014. "Jobs, careers, and becoming a parent under state socialist and market conditions: Evidence from Estonia 1971-2006," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 30(64), pages 1733-1768, June.

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