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Fertility and Public Policies - Evidence from Norway and Finland

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  • Marit Rønsen

    (Statistics Norway)

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    Abstract

    The relatively high and rising fertility rates of Nordic countries in the late 1980s and early 1990s sparked a renewed research interest in the possible pronatalistic effects of generous family policy programs. Several studies have addressed this issue, but few have tried to model policy effects explicitly. The existing evidence so far is mainly from Sweden, where policy indicators have been incorporated in economic fertility models that also control for female wages. This paper complements previous Swedish analyses with evidence from Norway and Finland. The results corroborate earlier findings of a negative effect of female wages. There are also indications of a positive policy impact, as maternity leave extensions are estimated to raise birth rates, although mainly higher parity births and mainly in Finland.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany in its journal Demographic Research.

    Volume (Year): 10 (2004)
    Issue (Month): 6 (May)
    Pages: 143-170

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    Handle: RePEc:dem:demres:v:10:y:2004:i:6

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    Web page: http://www.demogr.mpg.de/

    Related research

    Keywords: female wages; fertility dynamics; multistate duration model; multistate models; public policy;

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    References

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    1. Ali C. Tasiran, 2002. "A reply to Walker's note: A comment on Tasiran's `Wage and income effects on the timing and spacing of births in Sweden and in the United States'," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 15(4), pages 783-796.
    2. Groot, Wim & Pott-Buter, Hettie A, 1992. "The Timing of Maternity in the Netherlands," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 5(2), pages 155-72, April.
    3. Cristino R. Arroyo & Junsen Zhang, 1997. "Dynamic microeconomic models of fertility choice: A survey," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 10(1), pages 23-65.
    4. Marit RÃnsen & Marianne SundstrÃm, 1996. "Maternal employment in Scandinavia: A comparison of the after-birth employment activity of Norwegian and Swedish women," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 9(3), pages 267-285.
    5. Heckman, J.J. & Walker, J.R., 1989. "The Third Birth In Sweden," Papers 573, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
    6. Walker, James R, 1995. "The Effect of Public Policies on Recent Swedish Fertility Behavior," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 8(3), pages 223-51, August.
    7. Ronsen, Marit & Sundstrom, Marianne, 1996. "Maternal Employment in Scandinavia: A Comparison of the After-Birth Employment Activity of Norwegian and Swedish Women," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 9(3), pages 267-85, August.
    8. James R. Walker, 2002. "A Comment on Ali Tasiran's `Wage and income effects on the timing and spacing of births in Sweden and in the United States'," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 15(4), pages 773-782.
    9. Øystein Kravdal, 2001. "The High Fertility of College Educated Women in Norway," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 5(6), pages 187-216, December.
    10. Barmby, T & Cigno, A, 1990. "A Sequential Probability Model of Fertility Patterns," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 3(1), pages 31-51, April.
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    Cited by:
    1. Monstad, Karin & Propper, Carol & Salvanes, Kjell Gunnar, 2008. "Education and Fertility: Evidence from a Natural Experiment," Working Papers in Economics 05/08, University of Bergen, Department of Economics.
    2. Ralph Lattimore & Clinton Pobke, 2008. "Recent Trends in Australian Fertility," Staff Working Papers 0806, Productivity Commission, Government of Australia.
    3. Jérôme De Henau & Danièle Meulders & Sile Padraigin O'Dorchai, 2006. "The comparative effectiveness of public policies to fight motherhood-induced employment penalties and decreasing fertility in the former EU-15," DULBEA Working Papers 06-02rs, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    4. Hill Kulu & Andres Vikat & Gunnar Andersson, 2006. "Settlement size and fertility in the Nordic countries," MPIDR Working Papers WP-2006-024, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
    5. Natálie Švarcová & Petr Švarc, 2009. "The Financial Impact of Government Policies on Families with Children in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia," Czech Economic Review, Charles University Prague, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute of Economic Studies, vol. 3(1), pages 048-068, March.
    6. Gunnar Andersson & Michaela Kreyenfeld & Tatjana Mika, 2009. "Welfare state context, female earnings and childbearing," MPIDR Working Papers WP-2009-026, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
    7. Anne Gauthier, 2007. "The impact of family policies on fertility in industrialized countries: a review of the literature," Population Research and Policy Review, Springer, vol. 26(3), pages 323-346, June.

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