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La productividad del sector manufacturero colombiano y el impacto de la política comercial: 1977-2001

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  • Meléndez Marcela

    ()

  • Katja Seim

    ()

Abstract

Este trabajo analiza los efectos de las reformas a la política comercial de la década de 1990 sobre la productividad del sector manufacturero colombiano. Los resultados indican que entre 1978 y 1998, la productividad agregada del sector manufacturero se estancó, e incluso decreció en algunas de las industrias muy grandes. Sin embargo, la recesión de 1999 aparece como un choque positivo. Entre 1999 y 2001, la productividad mostró un crecimiento significativo. Durante el período observado hay una baja tasa de entrada y salida de firmas, y poca relocalización de trabajo entre sectores. El estancamiento de la productividad puede explicarse por la permanencia en actividad de plantas improductivas, combinada con un lento desarrollo tecnológico. La dinámica de la productividad varía significativamente entre sectores, y los resultados obtenidos indican que esta variación puede atribuirse a la relocalización de trabajo al interior de cada sector. Las políticas industriales tienen gran importancia. La caída en la productividad de sectores particulares coincide con altas tasas de aranceles, mientras que la exposición de ciertos sectores a mercados internacionales está correlacionada con aumentos en la productividad.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by UNIVERSIDAD DE LOS ANDES-CEDE in its journal REVISTA DESARROLLO Y SOCIEDAD.

Volume (Year): (2006)
Issue (Month): ()
Pages:

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Handle: RePEc:col:000090:003062

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Keywords: productividad; industria manufacturera; políticas comerciales; apertura;

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  1. Chad Syverson, 2004. "Market Structure and Productivity: A Concrete Example," NBER Working Papers 10501, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Jeffrey Sachs & Andrew Warner, 1995. "Economic Reform and the Progress of Global Integration," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1733, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
  3. Lucia Foster & John Haltiwanger & C.J. Krizan, 1998. "Aggregate Productivity Growth: Lessons from Microeconomic Evidence," NBER Working Papers 6803, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. G. Steven Olley & Ariel Pakes, 1992. "The Dynamics of Productivity in the Telecommunications Equipment Industry," NBER Working Papers 3977, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Pavcnik, Nina, 2002. "Trade Liberalization, Exit, and Productivity Improvement: Evidence from Chilean Plants," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 69(1), pages 245-76, January.
  6. Kim, Euysung, 2000. "Trade liberalization and productivity growth in Korean manufacturing industries: price protection, market power, and scale efficiency," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(1), pages 55-83, June.
  7. Fernandes, Ana M., 2003. "Trade policy, trade volumes, and plant-level productivity in Colombian manufacturing industries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3064, The World Bank.
  8. Tybout, James R. & Westbrook, M. Daniel, 1995. "Trade liberalization and the dimensions of efficiency change in Mexican manufacturing industries," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(1-2), pages 53-78, August.
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