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Viewpoint: An extended class of instrumental variables for the estimation of causal effects

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  • Karim Chalak
  • Halbert White

Abstract

We examine how structural systems can yield observed variables instrumental in identifying and estimating causal effects. We provide an exhaustive characterization of potentially identifying conditional exogeneity relationships and demonstrate how structural relations determine exogeneity and exclusion restrictions that yield moment conditions supporting identification. This provides a comprehensive framework for constructing instruments and covariates. We introduce notions of conditioning and conditional extended instrumental variables (XIVs). These permit identification but need not be traditional instruments, as they may be endogenous. We distinguish between observed XIVs and proxies for unobserved XIVs. A main message is the importance of sufficiently specifying causal relations governing the unobservables.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Canadian Economics Association in its journal Canadian Journal of Economics.

Volume (Year): 44 (2011)
Issue (Month): 1 (February)
Pages: 1-51

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Handle: RePEc:cje:issued:v:44:y:2011:i:1:p:1-51

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Cited by:
  1. Guggenberger, Patrik, 2012. "A note on the (in)consistency of the test of overidentifying restrictions and the concepts of true and pseudo-true parameters," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 117(3), pages 901-904.
  2. Halbert White & Karim Chalak, 2013. "Identification and Identification Failure for Treatment Effects Using Structural Systems," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 32(3), pages 273-317, November.
  3. Susanne Schennach & Halbert White & Karim Chalak, 2007. "Local Indirect Least Squares and Average Marginal Effects in Nonseparable Structural Systems," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 680, Boston College Department of Economics, revised 26 Dec 2009.
  4. Joeri Smits & Jeffrey S. Racine, 2013. "Testing Exclusion Restrictions in Nonseparable Triangular Models," Department of Economics Working Papers 2013-02, McMaster University.
  5. Paulo Parente & Richard Smith, 2012. "Exogeneity in semiparametric moment condition models," CeMMAP working papers CWP30/12, Centre for Microdata Methods and Practice, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  6. Lu, Xun & White, Halbert, 2014. "Robustness checks and robustness tests in applied economics," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 178(P1), pages 194-206.
  7. Diagne, Aliou & Alia, Didier Y. & Wopereis, Marco C.S. & Saito, Kazuki, 2012. "Impact of Rice Research on Income and Poverty in Africa: An Ex-ante Analysis," 2012 Conference, August 18-24, 2012, Foz do Iguacu, Brazil 126874, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
  8. Montes-Rojas, Gabriel & Galvao, Antonio F., 2014. "Bayesian endogeneity bias modeling," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 122(1), pages 36-39.

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