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Endogenous protection of R&D investments

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  • Chrysovalantou Milliou

Abstract

We examine firms' incentives to protect their non-cooperative R&D investments from spilling over to competitors. We show that, contrary to findings in most of the literature, the lack of full appropriability can lead to an increase in R&D investments. Consequently, as long as the R&D spillovers are not too strong, firms decide to let their R&D knowledge flow. Since, as we show, welfare is higher when R&D spillovers are present, it follows that public policies that promote the dissemination of technological knowledge could be welfare-enhancing.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Canadian Economics Association in its journal Canadian Journal of Economics.

Volume (Year): 42 (2009)
Issue (Month): 1 (February)
Pages: 184-205

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Handle: RePEc:cje:issued:v:42:y:2009:i:1:p:184-205

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References

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  1. Hans Gersbach & Armin Schmutzler, 2003. "Endogenous spillovers and incentives to innovate," Economic Theory, Springer, vol. 21(1), pages 59-79, 01.
  2. María José Gil Moltó & Nikolaos Georgantzís & Vicente Orts, 2005. "Cooperative R&D with Endogenous Technology Differentiation," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 14(2), pages 461-476, 06.
  3. Griliches, Zvi, 1992. " The Search for R&D Spillovers," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 94(0), pages S29-47, Supplemen.
  4. Bester, H. & Petrakis, E., 1991. "The Incentives for Cost Reduction in a Differentiated Industry," Discussion Paper 1991-36, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  5. Andrea Fosfuri & Massimo Motta & Thomas Ronde, 1998. "Foreign direct investments and spillovers through workers' mobility," Economics Working Papers 258, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
  6. De Fraja, Giovanni, 1993. "Strategic spillovers in patent races," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 139-146, March.
  7. Motta, Massimo & Rønde, Thomas, 2002. "Trade Secret Laws, Labour Mobility and Innovations," CEPR Discussion Papers 3615, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  8. Nick Bloom & Mark Schankerman & John Van Reenen, 2005. "Identifying technology spillovers and product market rivalry," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 3728, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  9. Gamal Atallah, 2004. "The Protection of Innovations," Working Papers 0402E, University of Ottawa, Department of Economics.
  10. Wesley M Cohen & Richard R Nelson & John P Walsh, 2003. "Protecting Their Intellectual Assets: Appropriability Conditions and Why U.S. Manufacturing Firms Patent (Or Not)," Levine's Working Paper Archive 618897000000000624, David K. Levine.
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  13. Jaffe, Adam B, 1986. "Technological Opportunity and Spillovers of R&D: Evidence from Firms' Patents, Profits, and Market Value," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(5), pages 984-1001, December.
  14. Kamien, Morton I. & Zang, Israel, 2000. "Meet me halfway: research joint ventures and absorptive capacity," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 18(7), pages 995-1012, October.
  15. De Bondt, Raymond, 1997. "Spillovers and innovative activities," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 1-28, February.
  16. Arundel, Anthony & Kabla, Isabelle, 1998. "What percentage of innovations are patented? empirical estimates for European firms," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 127-141, June.
  17. Richard C. Levin & Alvin K. Klevorick & Richard R. Nelson & Sidney G. Winter, 1987. "Appropriating the Returns from Industrial Research and Development," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 18(3), pages 783-832.
  18. Joanna Poyago-Theotoky, 1999. "A Note on Endogenous Spillovers in a Non-Tournament R & D Duopoly," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer, vol. 15(3), pages 253-262, November.
  19. Kamien, Morton I & Muller, Eitan & Zang, Israel, 1992. "Research Joint Ventures and R&D Cartels," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(5), pages 1293-306, December.
  20. Jeffrey I. Bernstein & M. Ishaq Nadiri, 1989. "Research and Development and Intraindustry Spillovers: An Empirical Application of Dynamic Duality," NBER Working Papers 2002, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  21. Belleflamme, Paul & Picard, Pierre & Thisse, Jacques-Francois, 2000. "An Economic Theory of Regional Clusters," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 158-184, July.
  22. Wiethaus, Lars, 2005. "Absorptive capacity and connectedness: Why competing firms also adopt identical R&D approaches," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 23(5-6), pages 467-481, June.
  23. Milliou, Chrysovalantou, 2004. "Vertical integration and R&D information flow: is there a need for 'firewalls'?," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 25-43, January.
  24. Katsoulacos, Yannis & Ulph, David, 1998. "Endogenous Spillovers and the Performance of Research Joint Ventures," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 46(3), pages 333-57, September.
  25. Richard C. Levin & Alvin K. Klevorick & Richard R. Nelson & Sidney G. Winter, 1988. "Appropriating the Returns from Industrial R&D," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 862, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Ben Youssef, Slim, 2009. "Transboundary Pollution and Absorptive Capacity," MPRA Paper 17158, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  2. Paolo Giorgio GARELLA & Emanuele BACCHIEGA, 2007. "Disclosing vs. withholding technology knowledge in a duopoly," Departmental Working Papers 2007-01, Department of Economics, Management and Quantitative Methods at Università degli Studi di Milano.
  3. Chrysovalantou Milliou & Emmanuel Petrakis, 2012. "Vertical integration, knowledge disclosure and decreasing rival's cost," Economics Working Papers we1213, Universidad Carlos III, Departamento de Economía.
  4. Clark, Derek J. & Sand, Jan Yngve, 2009. "Endogenous Technology Sharing in R&D Intensive Industries," Economics Discussion Papers 2009-28, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
  5. Noriaki Matsushima & Koki Arai & Ikuo Ishibashi & Fumio Sensui, 2011. "The effects of non-assertion of patents provisions: R&D incentives in vertical relationships," ISER Discussion Paper 0807, Institute of Social and Economic Research, Osaka University.
  6. Ben Youssef, Slim & Zaccour, Georges, 2009. "Absorptive Capacity, R&D Spillovers, Emissions Taxes and R&D Subsidies," MPRA Paper 16984, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Aug 2009.

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