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Sexual orientation, work, and income in Canada

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  • Christopher S. Carpenter
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    Abstract

    We provide the first evidence on sexual orientation and economic outcomes in Canada using confidential data that ask adults a direct question about their sexual orientation. Gay men have 12% lower personal incomes and lesbians have 15% higher personal incomes than otherwise similar heterosexual men and women, respectively. Different labour force patterns can account for some of the income differentials. We also document large differences in educational attainment, childrearing, and urbanicity that generally mirror patterns found in the US. Finally, we show that applying couples-based approaches common in this literature greatly overstates the magnitudes of gay/straight income gaps.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Canadian Economics Association in its journal Canadian Journal of Economics.

    Volume (Year): 41 (2008)
    Issue (Month): 4 (November)
    Pages: 1239-1261

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    Handle: RePEc:cje:issued:v:41:y:2008:i:4:p:1239-1261

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    Cited by:
    1. Ahmed, Ali M. & Hammarstedt, Mats, 2008. "Sexual Orientation and Earnings in Sweden," Working Papers in Economics 285, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics, revised 01 Sep 2005.
    2. Amélie Lafrance & Casey Warman & Frances Woolley, 2009. "Sexual Identity and the Marriage Premium," Carleton Economic Papers 09-08, Carleton University, Department of Economics.
    3. Weichselbaumer, Doris, 2013. "Testing for Discrimination against Lesbians of Different Marital Status: A Field Experiment," IZA Discussion Papers 7425, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    4. Josef Montag, 2014. "What Drives the Gender Gap? An Analysis Using Sexual Orientation," MENDELU Working Papers in Business and Economics 2014-43, Mendel University in Brno, Faculty of Business and Economics.
    5. Carpenter, Christopher S., 2009. "Sexual orientation and outcomes in college," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 28(6), pages 693-703, December.
    6. Ali Ahmed & Mats Hammarstedt, 2010. "Sexual orientation and earnings: a register data-based approach to identify homosexuals," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 23(3), pages 835-849, June.
    7. Stephan Humpert, 2012. "Somewhere over the Rainbow: Sexual Orientation Discrimination in Germany," Working Paper Series in Economics 245, University of Lüneburg, Institute of Economics.
    8. Stevenson, Adam, 2012. "The Labor Supply and Tax Revenue Consequences of Federal Same-Sex Marriage Legalization," MPRA Paper 36532, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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