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Die neuen Mitglieder: Motor oder Bremse der europäischen Integration?

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  • Wilhelm Kohler
  • Christian Arndt
  • Anselm Mattes
  • Michael Knogler
  • Fidelis Lankes
  • Jarko Fidmuc

Abstract

Am 1. Mai 2004 traten zehn weitere Länder der Europäischen Union bei. Dieses Jahr folgten Bulgarien und Rumänien. Mit 27 Nationen ist nunmehr der weltweit größte Staatenbund und Wirtschaftsraum mit mehr als 500 Mill. Menschen entstanden. Drei Jahre nach der Osterweiterung ist es an der Zeit, eine erste Bilanz zu ziehen. Wurden die Erwartungen erfüllt? Vor welchen politischen und wirtschaftlichen Problemen stehen die neuen Mitgliedsländer? Welche Wirkungen hatte die Erweiterung auf die EU? Zu diesen Fragen fand vom 15. bis 17. Juni 2007 in der Akademie für Politische Bildung Tutzing in Zusammenarbeit mit dem Osteuropa-Institut, München, unter der Leitung von Wolfgang Quaisser eine Tagung statt. Wilhelm Kohler, Universität Tübingen, stellte fest, dass die Frage nach dem Nutzen der EU-Osterweiterung für die alten Mitglieder weder aus Sicht der Wachstumstheorie noch aus Sicht der Empirie eindeutig zu beantworten sei. Er wolle zwar nicht das Gespenst einer "Wachstumsbremse Osterweiterung" an die Wand malen, aber nach dem Motto "Handel ist gut für das Wachstum" in umgekehrter Richtung zu erwarten, dass von der Osterweiterung wesentliche langfristige Wachstumsimpulse für die bestehenden Mitgliedsländer ausgehen werden, sei bei nüchterner Betrachtung doch etwas naiv. Schließlich dürfe man nicht vergessen, dass der weitaus größere Teil der Wachstumsgrundlagen in der Hand der nationalen Regierungen liege. Der durch diese oder andere Erweiterungen der EU bewirkte marginale Effekt werde - zumindest langfristig betrachtet - wohl nur von untergeordneter Bedeutung sein. Christian Arndt und Anselm Matthes, Institut für Angewandte Wirtschaftsforschung (IAW), Tübingen, beschäftigten sich mit den Effekten von Offshore-Aktivitäten deutscher Unternehmen. In ihrer Analyse dreier verschiedener Datensätze wiesen sie darauf hin, dass der Großteil der entsprechenden Auslandsengagements deutscher Unternehmen vom Motiv der Markterschließung getrieben ist.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Ifo Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich in its journal ifo Schnelldienst.

Volume (Year): 60 (2007)
Issue (Month): 14 (07)
Pages: 03-20

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Handle: RePEc:ces:ifosdt:v:60:y:2007:i:14:p:03-20

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Keywords: Wirtschaftliche Integration; EU-Erweiterung; Wirtschaftswachstum; Beschäftigungseffekt; Arbeitsmarktpolitik; Euro; Wechselkurspolitik; EU-Staaten;

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