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COUNTRY RISK: Economic Policy, Contagion Effect or Political noise?

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  • Julio Nogués

    ()
    (Former Executive Director, The World Bank)

  • Martín Grandes

    ()
    (OCDE Development Centre and D.E.L.T.A)

Abstract

The opening of the capital account was one of the important structural reforms implemented by Argentina. This liberalization increased the linkage of the real economy with the changing conditions of the international financial markets. In particular, recent data show a clear relation between interest rates and the business cycle on the one hand, and sovereign spreads on the other. In order to understand better these linkages, it is necessary to analyze the determinants of these spreads also known as country risk. Using monthly data for the period 1994 to 1998, we find that this spread is explained by: 1) growth expectations, 2) fiscal deficits, 3) the debt service to export ratio and its growth rate, 4) contagion effects, 5) external shocks including movements of international interest rates, and 6) political noise. Based on these findings, we offer a discussion of some of the policies that should be implemented in order for the spreads to start declining and for the country to eventually reach an "investment grade" rating for its sovereign bonds.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Universidad del CEMA in its journal Journal of Applied Economics.

Volume (Year): IV (2001)
Issue (Month): (May)
Pages: 125-162

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Handle: RePEc:cem:jaecon:v:4:y:2001:n:1:p:125-162

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  1. Barry Eichengreen & Ashoka Mody, 1998. "What Explains Changing Spreads on Emerging-Market Debt: Fundamentals or Market Sentiment?," NBER Working Papers 6408, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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Cited by:
  1. Montes, Gabriel Caldas & Tiberto, Bruno Pires, 2012. "Macroeconomic environment, country risk and stock market performance: Evidence for Brazil," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 29(5), pages 1666-1678.
  2. Alex Luiz Ferreira, 2007. "On the Transmission Mechanism of Monetary Constraints to the Real Side of the Economy," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 21(1), pages 43-54.
  3. Bergin, Paul R. & Jorda, Oscar, 2004. "Measuring monetary policy interdependence," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(5), pages 761-783, September.
  4. Maltritz, Dominik & Molchanov, Alexander, 2013. "Analyzing determinants of bond yield spreads with Bayesian Model Averaging," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(12), pages 5275-5284.
  5. Bundala, Ntogwa, 2012. "Do Economic Growth, Human Development and Political Stability favour sovereign Creditworthiness of a Country? A Cross Country Survey on Developed and Developing Countries," MPRA Paper 47626, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  6. Eichler, Stefan & Maltritz, Dominik, 2013. "The term structure of sovereign default risk in EMU member countries and its determinants," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(6), pages 1810-1816.
  7. Martin Grandes & Helmut Reisen, 2003. "Hard Peg versus Soft Float. A Tale of Two Latin-American Countries," Revue économique, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 54(5), pages 1057-1090.
  8. Peter Rowland & José Luis Torres, . "Determinants of Spread and Creditworthiness for Emerging Market Sovereign Debt:A Panel Data Study," Borradores de Economia 295, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
  9. Martín Grandes, 2007. "The Determinants of Sovereign Bond Spreads: Theory and Facts From Latin America," Latin American Journal of Economics-formerly Cuadernos de Economía, Instituto de Economía. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile., vol. 44(130), pages 151-181.
  10. Maltritz, Dominik & Molchanov, Alexander, 2014. "Country credit risk determinants with model uncertainty," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 224-234.
  11. K.P., Prabheesh, 2013. "Optimum international reserves and sovereign risk: Evidence from India," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 76-86.

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