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The Effects of Medicare on Health Care Utilization and Outcomes

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  • Lichtenberg Frank R.

    (Columbia University and NBER)

Abstract

Medicare, which provides health insurance to Americans over the age of 65 and to Americans living with disabilities, is one of the government’s largest social programs. It accounts for 12 percent of federal on- and off-budget outlays, and in fiscal year 1999,$212 billion in Medicare benefits were paid. The largest shares of spending are for inpatient hospital services (48 percent) and physician services (27 percent). In thirty years, the number of Americans covered by Medicare will nearly double to 77 million, or 22 percent of the U.S. population.Perhaps the most important question we can ask about the Medicare program is, What impact does it have on the health of the U.S. population? One feature of the Medicare program can be exploited to shed light on its impacts: its age specificity. Most people become eligible for Medicare suddenly, the day they turn 65. Consequently, the age profiles of health services utilization and health outcomes (morbidity and mortality) can provide revealing evidence about Medicare’s impacts.My objective is to obtain precise estimates of medical utilization and outcomes, by single year of age, for ages close to age 65. The most precise estimates can be obtained by using information obtained from medical providers (hospitals and doctors) pooled over several years.Utilization of ambulatory care and, to a much smaller extent, inpatient care increases suddenly and significantly at age 65, presumably due to Medicare eligibility. The evidence points to a structural change in the frequency of physician visits precisely at age 65. Attainment of age 65 marks not only an upward shift but also the beginning of a rapid upward trend (up until age 75) of about 2.8 percent per year in annual visits per capita. The number of physician visits in which at least one drug is prescribed also jumps up at age 65. Reaching age 65 has a strong positive impact on the consumption of hospital services, but most of this impact appears to be the result of postponement of hospitalization in the prior two years.We also examine whether this increase in utilization leads to an improvement in outcomes--a reduction in morbidity and mortality--relative to what one would expect given the trends in outcomes prior to age 65. The estimates are consistent with the hypothesis that the Medicare-induced increase in health care utilization leads to a reduction in days spent in bed of about 13 percent and to slower growth in the probability of death after age 65. Physician visits are estimated to have a negative effect on the male death rate, conditional on age and the death rate in the previous year. The short-run elasticity of the death rate with respect to the number of physician visits is -.095, and the long-run elasticity is -.497: a permanent or sustained 10 percent increase in the number of visits ultimately leads to a 5 percent reduction in the death rate.Data on age-specific death probabilities every 10 years since 1900, i.e., before as well as after Medicare was enacted, provide an alternative way to test for the effect of Medicare on longevity. They also provide strong support for the hypothesis that Medicare increased the survival rate of the elderly by about 13 percent.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by De Gruyter in its journal Forum for Health Economics & Policy.

Volume (Year): 5 (2002)
Issue (Month): 1 (January)
Pages: 1-29

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Handle: RePEc:bpj:fhecpo:v:5:y:2002:n:3

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Cited by:
  1. Erin Strumpf, 2010. "Employer-sponsored health insurance for early retirees: impacts on retirement, health, and health care," International Journal of Health Care Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 10(2), pages 105-147, June.
  2. Amy Finkelstein & Robin McKnight, 2005. "What Did Medicare Do (And Was It Worth It)?," NBER Working Papers 11609, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. David Card & Carlos Dobkin & Nicole Maestas, 2009. "Does Medicare Save Lives?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 124(2), pages 597-636, May.
  4. Khwaja, Ahmed, 2010. "Estimating willingness to pay for medicare using a dynamic life-cycle model of demand for health insurance," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 156(1), pages 130-147, May.
  5. Lichtenberg, Frank R., 2004. "Sources of U.S. longevity increase, 1960-2001," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 44(3), pages 369-389, July.
  6. Boyle, Melissa A. & Lahey, Joanna N., 2010. "Health insurance and the labor supply decisions of older workers: Evidence from a U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs expansion," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 94(7-8), pages 467-478, August.
  7. David Card & Carlos Dobkin & Nicole Maestas, 2004. "The Impact of Nearly Universal Insurance Coverage on Health Care Utilization and Health: Evidence from Medicare," Working Papers 197, RAND Corporation Publications Department.
  8. Daron Acemoglu & Joshua Linn, 2004. "Market Size in Innovation: Theory and Evidence from the Pharmaceutical Industry," Levine's Working Paper Archive 228400000000000002, David K. Levine.
  9. Finkelstein, Amy & McKnight, Robin, 2008. "What did Medicare do? The initial impact of Medicare on mortality and out of pocket medical spending," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(7), pages 1644-1668, July.
  10. Lara Bryant & Sharmila Vishwasrao, 2006. "Physician Quality and Health Care for the Poor and Uninsured," Working Papers 06001, Department of Economics, College of Business, Florida Atlantic University.
  11. Frank Lichtenberg, 2000. "Sources of U.S. Longevity Increase, 1960 -1997," CESifo Working Paper Series 405, CESifo Group Munich.
  12. Mary Eschelbach Hansen & Paul Jacobs, 2007. "Valuing Substitute Families:Financial Support for Foster and Adoptive Families," Working Papers 2007-04, American University, Department of Economics.
  13. Munkin, Murat K. & Trivedi, Pravin K., 2008. "Bayesian analysis of the ordered probit model with endogenous selection," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 143(2), pages 334-348, April.

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