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Growth, Poverty, and Inequality in Latin America: A Causal Analysis, 1970-94

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  • de Janvry, Alain
  • Sadoulet, Elisabeth

Abstract

Taking advantage of consistent poverty and income inequality data for 12 Latin American countries between 1970 and 1994, we analyze the determinants of changes in the incidence of urban and rural poverty and in Gini coefficients over spells of years, stressing in particular the role of aggregate income growth. We find that income growth reduces urban and rural poverty but not inequality. We also find that income growth is more effective in reducing urban poverty if the levels of inequality and poverty are lower, and the levels of secondary education higher. We show that there is an asymmetry in the impact of growth on poverty and inequality, with recession having strong negative effects on both poverty and inequality. Since growth does not reduce inequality, economic cycles create ratchet effects on the level of inequality. However, post-structural adjustment growth is quite effective at reducing poverty, particularly if inequality is low. Copyright 2000 by The International Association for Research in Income and Wealth.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by International Association for Research in Income and Wealth in its journal Review of Income & Wealth.

Volume (Year): 46 (2000)
Issue (Month): 3 (September)
Pages: 267-87

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Handle: RePEc:bla:revinw:v:46:y:2000:i:3:p:267-87

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Cited by:
  1. Manoel Bittencourt, 2013. "Economic Growth and Inequality: Evidence from the Young Democracies of South America," Working Papers 201301, University of Pretoria, Department of Economics.
  2. Jaideep Oberoi & Syed Ahsan, 2003. "Inequality, Well-being and Institutions in Latin America and the Caribbean," CESifo Working Paper Series 846, CESifo Group Munich.
  3. Sabyasachi Tripathi, 2013. "Is Urban Economic Growth Inclusive in India?," Margin: The Journal of Applied Economic Research, National Council of Applied Economic Research, vol. 7(4), pages 507-539, November.
  4. Michael Carter & John Morrow, 2014. "The Political Economy of Inclusive Rural Growth," CEP Discussion Papers dp1259, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  5. Andrew Berg & Anne O. Krueger, 2003. "Trade, Growth, and Poverty: A Selective Survey," IMF Working Papers 03/30, International Monetary Fund.
  6. Janvry, Alain de & Sadoulet, Elisabeth, 2004. "Fitting the Facts and Capitalizing on New Opportunities to Redesign Rural Development Programs in Latin America," Brazilian Journal of Rural Economy and Sociology (RESR), Sociedade Brasileira de Economia e Sociologia Rural, vol. 42(3), September.
  7. Sotomayor, Orlando, 2004. "Development and Income Distribution: The Case of Puerto Rico," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 32(8), pages 1395-1406, August.
  8. Alain de Janvry & Elisabeth Sadoulet, 2007. "Toward a territorial approach to rural development," The Electronic Journal of Agricultural and Development Economics, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, vol. 4(1), pages 66-98.
  9. Balisacan, Arsenio M. & Fuwa, Nobuhiko, 2004. "Going beyond Crosscountry Averages: Growth, Inequality and Poverty Reduction in the Philippines," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 32(11), pages 1891-1907, November.
  10. Sudishka Joshi & Tesfa Gebremedhin, 2010. "A Spatial Analysis of Poverty and Income Inequality in the Appalachian Region," Working Papers 201015, Regional Research Institute, West Virginia University.
  11. Fortun Vargas, Jonathan M., 2012. "Declining inequality in Bolivia: How and Why," MPRA Paper 41208, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  12. David E. Sahn & Stephen D. Younger, 2006. "Changes in inequality and poverty in Latin America: Looking beyond income to health and education," Journal of Applied Economics, Universidad del CEMA, vol. 0, pages 215-234, November.

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