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Optimal Price and Selling Effort from the Perspectives of the Broker and Seller

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  • David Geltner
  • Brian D. Kluger
  • Norman G. Miller
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    Abstract

    This paper uses numerical solutions of a dynamic optimization model to examine the principal-agent relationship between the seller and broker in residential real estate markets. Potential conflict of interest is quantified in two dimensions, the level of selling effort the broker puts forth, and the reservation price for the property. The dynamic optimization model reveals that the use of a finite duration listing contract will induce the broker to increase his or her effort level compared to an unlimited duration contract, and that the broker's optimal effort will increase over time, becoming greater as the listing contract expiration time draws nearer ("rational procrastination"). The numerical analysis indicates that with plausible parameter values, conflict of interest problems regarding broker effort level are minor or nonexistent near the end of the listing contract, but potentially important near the beginning of the contract. In contrast, the conflict of interest regarding reservation price is more severe near the end of the listing contract and is exacerbated by the use of finite duration contracts, the more so the shorter the contract. Copyright American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association.

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    File URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1540-6229.00537
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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association in its journal Real Estate Economics.

    Volume (Year): 19 (1991)
    Issue (Month): 1 ()
    Pages: 1-24

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    Handle: RePEc:bla:reesec:v:19:y:1991:i:1:p:1-24

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    Cited by:
    1. Paul K. Asabere & Forrest E. Huffman & Seyed Mehdian, 1993. "Mispricing and Optimal Time on the Market," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 8(1), pages 149-155.
    2. Rutherford, R.C. & Springer, T.M. & Yavas, A., 2005. "Conflicts between principals and agents: evidence from residential brokerage," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(3), pages 627-665, June.
    3. John D. Benjamin & G. Donald Jud & G. Stacy Sirmans, 2000. "What Do We Know About Real Estate Brokerage?," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 20(1), pages 5-30.
    4. R.C. Rutherford & T.M. Springer & A. Yavas, 2004. "The Impacts of Contract Type on Broker Performance: Submarket Effects," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 26(3), pages 277-298.
    5. Kenneth Soyeh & Jonathan Wiley & Ken Johnson, 2014. "Do Buyer Incentives Work for Houses during a Real Estate Downturn?," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 48(2), pages 380-396, February.
    6. Nasser Daneshvary & Terrence Clauretie, 2013. "Agent Change and Seller Bargaining Power: A Case of Principal Agent Problem in the Housing Market," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 47(3), pages 416-433, October.
    7. Paul Anglin & Richard Arnott, 1999. "Are Brokers' Commission Rates on Home Sales Too High? A Conceptual Analysis," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 27(4), pages 719-749.
    8. Dean Gatzlaff & Peng Liu, 2013. "List Price Information in the Negotiation of Commercial Real Estate Transactions: Is Silence Golden?," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 47(4), pages 760-786, November.
    9. John D. Benjamin & G. Donald Jud & G. Stacy Sirmans, 2000. "Real Estate Brokerage and the Hosting Market: An Annotated Bibliography," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 20(1), pages 217-278.
    10. Ronald Rutherford & Thomas Springer & Abdullah Yavas, 2007. "Evidence of Information Asymmetries in the Market for Residential Condominiums," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 35(1), pages 23-38, July.
    11. Bucchianeri, Grace W. & Minson, Julia A., 2013. "A homeowner's dilemma: Anchoring in residential real estate transactions," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 89(C), pages 76-92.
    12. Timothy E. Jares & James E. Larsen & Thomas S. Zorn, 2000. "An Optimal Incentive System For Real Estate Agents," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 20(1), pages 49-59.
    13. Terrence Clauretie & Nasser Daneshvary, 2008. "Principal–Agent Conflict and Broker Effort Near Listing Contract Expiration: The Case of Residential Properties," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 37(2), pages 147-161, August.
    14. Raymond Brastow & Thomas Springer & Bennie Waller, 2012. "Efficiency and Incentives in Residential Brokerage," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 45(4), pages 1041-1061, November.
    15. Sean Salter & Ken Johnson & Ernest King, 2010. "Listing Specialization and Pricing Precision," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 40(3), pages 245-259, April.
    16. Hilde Patron & Kenneth Roskelley, 2008. "The Effect of Reputation and Competition on the Advice of Real Estate Agents," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 37(4), pages 387-399, November.

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