Human resources in China: the birth quota, returns to schooling, and migration
AbstractThe rural elderly in China have 40% of the income of the urban elderly, spend a larger share of their income on food, are in worse health, work later into their lives and depend more on their children, lacking pensions and public services. The birth quota since 1980 has particularly restricted the childbearing of rural, less educated, women, who therefore have fewer children to rely on for support. This inequality is reinforced by increasing returns to schooling, especially beyond secondary school. Government restrictions on rural-urban migration reduces national efficiency, adds to the urban-rural wage gap and increases inequality. Copyright 2004 Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Wiley Blackwell in its journal Pacific Economic Review.
Volume (Year): 9 (2004)
Issue (Month): 3 (October)
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=1361-374X
Other versions of this item:
- T. Paul Schultz, 2004. "Human Resources in China: The Birth Quota, Returns to Schooling, and Migration," Yale School of Management Working Papers ysm366, Yale School of Management.
- T. Paul Schultz, 2003. "Human Resources in China: The Birth Quota, Returns to Schooling, and Migration," Working Papers 855, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
- J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
- J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
- J14 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of the Elderly; Economics of the Handicapped; Non-Labor Market Discrimination
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Gary S. Becker & H. Gregg Lewis, 1974. "Interaction between Quantity and Quality of Children," NBER Chapters, in: Economics of the Family: Marriage, Children, and Human Capital, pages 81-90 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Byron, Rayond P & Manaloto, Evelyn Q, 1990. "Returns to Education in China," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 38(4), pages 783-96, July.
- Schultz, T. Paul, 2010. "Population and Health Policies," Handbook of Development Economics, Elsevier.
- Wu, Ximing & Perloff, Jeffrey M., 2004.
"China'S Income Distribution Over Time: Reasons For Rising Inequality,"
2004 Annual meeting, August 1-4, Denver, CO
20061, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
- Wu, Ximing & Perloff, Jeffrey M., 2004. "China's Income Distribution over Time: Reasons for Rising Inequality," Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley, Working Paper Series qt166747gz, Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley.
- Wu, Ximing & Perloff, Jeffrey M., 2004. "China's Income Distribution Over Time: Reasons for Rising Inequality," Institute for Research on Labor and Employment, Working Paper Series qt9jw2v939, Institute of Industrial Relations, UC Berkeley.
- Wu, Ximing & Perloff, Jeffrey M, 2004. "China's income distribution over time: reasons for rising inequality," CUDARE Working Paper Series 0977, University of California at Berkeley, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Policy.
- Ximing Wu & Jeffrey M. Perloff, 2005.
"China's Income Distribution, 1985-2001,"
The Review of Economics and Statistics,
MIT Press, vol. 87(4), pages 763-775, November.
- Wu, Ximing & Perloff, Jeffrey M., 2005. "China's Income Distribution, 1985-2001," Institute for Research on Labor and Employment, Working Paper Series qt0zd6m0sf, Institute of Industrial Relations, UC Berkeley.
- Fan, C. Simon & Stark, Oded, 2008.
"Rural-to-urban migration, human capital, and agglomeration,"
Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization,
Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 234-247, October.
- Stark, Oded & Fan, C. Simon, 2007. "Rural-to-Urban Migration, Human Capital, and Agglomeration," Discussion Papers 7116, University of Bonn, Center for Development Research (ZEF).
- Xiaohua Yu & Guoqing Zhao, 2009. "Chinese agricultural development in 30 years: A literature review," Frontiers of Economics in China, Springer, vol. 4(4), pages 633-648, December.
- Hua-shu Wang & Henk Moll, 2010. "Education Financing of Rural Households in China," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 31(3), pages 353-360, September.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Wiley-Blackwell Digital Licensing) or (Christopher F. Baum).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.