Punishing the Foreigner: Implicit Discrimination in the Premier League Based on Oppositional Identity
AbstractWe present the first empirical study to reveal the presence of implicit discrimination in a non-experimental setting. By using a large dataset of in-match data in the English Premier League, we show that white referees award significantly more yellow cards against non-white players of oppositional identity. We argue that this is the result of implicit discrimination by showing that this discriminatory behaviour (i) increases in how rushed the referee is before making a decision, and (ii) it increases in the level of ambiguity of the decision. The variation in (i) and (ii) cannot be explained by any form of conscious discrimination such as taste-based or statistical discrimination. Moreover, we show that oppositional identity players do not differ in their behaviour from other players along several dimensions related to aggressiveness and style of play providing further evidence that this is not statistical discrimination.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Department of Economics, University of Oxford in its journal Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics.
Volume (Year): 75 (2013)
Issue (Month): 1 (02)
Contact details of provider:
Postal: Manor Rd. Building, Oxford, OX1 3UQ
Web page: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0305-9049
More information through EDIRC
Other versions of this item:
- Edoardo Gallo & Thomas Grund & J. James Reade, 2012. "Punishing the Foreigner: Implicit Discrimination in the Premier League Based on Oppositional Identity," Discussion Papers 12-02, Department of Economics, University of Birmingham.
- L83 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - Sports; Gambling; Restaurants; Recreation; Tourism
- J71 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - Hiring and Firing
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Luis Garicano & Ignacio Palacios & Canice Prendergast, 2001.
"Favoritism Under Social Pressure,"
NBER Working Papers
8376, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Joseph Price & Justin Wolfers, 2007.
"Racial Discrimination Among NBA Referees,"
NBER Working Papers
13206, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Matthias Sutter & Martin G. Kocher, .
"Favoritism of agents – The case of referees’ home bias,"
Papers on Strategic Interaction
2002-28, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Strategic Interaction Group.
- Sutter, Matthias & Kocher, Martin G., 2004. "Favoritism of agents - The case of referees' home bias," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 25(4), pages 461-469, August.
- Sutter, Matthias & Kocher, Martin G., 2004. "Favoritism of agents - The case of referees' home bias," Munich Reprints in Economics 18180, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
- Peter Dawson & Stephen Dobson & John Goddard & John Wilson, 2007. "Are football referees really biased and inconsistent?: evidence on the incidence of disciplinary sanction in the English Premier League," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 170(1), pages 231-250.
- Rooth, Dan-Olof, 2007. "Implicit Discrimination in Hiring: Real World Evidence," IZA Discussion Papers 2764, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Barry Reilly & Robert Witt, 1995. "English league transfer prices: is there a racial dimension?," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 2(7), pages 220-222.
- Bodvarsson, Orn B & Brastow, Raymond T, 1998. "Do Employers Pay for Consistent Performance?: Evidence from the NBA," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 36(1), pages 145-60, January.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Wiley-Blackwell Digital Licensing) or (Christopher F. Baum).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.