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Nominal Versus Real Convergence - EMU Entry Scenarios for the New Member States

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  • Paul Grauwe
  • Gunther Schnabl

Abstract

This paper explores the conflict of real and monetary convergence during the EMU run-up of the Central and Eastern European member states. Using a Balassa-Samuelson model of productivity driven inflation, we find a high probability of higher inflation in the new member states. We compare the policy options which make the compliance possible, i.e. fiscal tightening and nominal appreciation within the ERM2 band. Nominal appreciation within ERM2 seems the better option to achieve the compliance with the Maastricht criteria, as no discretionary government intervention is necessary, and losses in terms of real growth are smaller. Having once opted for nominal appreciation by fixing the ERM2 entry rate as the central rate (Irish model), a high degree of flexibility is provided in coping with erratic short-term capital inflows. The strategy of setting the ERM2 entry rate above the central rate (Greek model) implies a clear exchange rate path within ERM2 and thereby less exchange rate volatility. Despite the merits of nominal appreciation, countries committed to hard euro pegs, or with high budget deficits, may choose fiscal contraction as a solution. Copyright 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd..

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Wiley Blackwell in its journal Kyklos.

Volume (Year): 58 (2005)
Issue (Month): 4 (November)
Pages: 537-555

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Handle: RePEc:bla:kyklos:v:58:y:2005:i:4:p:537-555

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Cited by:
  1. Frömmel, Michael, 2006. "Volatility Regimes in Central and Eastern European Countries' Exchange Rates," Hannover Economic Papers (HEP) dp-333, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät.
  2. Levy Yeyati, Eduardo & Sturzenegger, Federico, 2010. "Monetary and Exchange Rate Policies," Handbook of Development Economics, Elsevier.
  3. Hiranya Nath & Kiril Tochkov, 2013. "Relative inflation dynamics in the new EU member countries of Central and Eastern Europe," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 45(1), pages 1-22, August.
  4. Juraj Antal & Jan Filáček & Jan Frait & Roman Horvath & Viktor Kotlán & Michal Skořepa, 2009. "Monetary Policy Strategies before Euro Adoption: The Art of Chasing Many Rabbits," Czech Economic Review, Charles University Prague, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute of Economic Studies, vol. 3(2), pages 176-198, July.
  5. Jarko Fidrmuc & Roman Horváth, 2007. "Volatility of Exchange Rates in Selected New EU Members: Evidence from Daily Data," CESifo Working Paper Series 2107, CESifo Group Munich.
  6. John Lewis, 2007. "Hitting and Hoping? Meeting the Exchange Rate and Inflation Criteria during a Period of Nominal Convergence," CESifo Working Paper Series 1902, CESifo Group Munich.
  7. Orlowski, Lucjan T., 2008. "Relative inflation-forecast as monetary policy target for convergence to the euro," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 30(6), pages 1061-1081.
  8. Andreas Hoffmann, 2010. "An Overinvestment Cycle In Central And Eastern Europe?," Metroeconomica, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 61(4), pages 711-734, November.
  9. Filacek, Jan & Horvath, Roman & Skorepa, Michal, 2006. "Monetary Policy before Euro Adoption: Challenges for EU New Members," MPRA Paper 879, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  10. Kowalski, Tadeusz & Shachmurove, Yochanan, 2014. "The reaction of the U.S. and the European Monetary Union to recent global financial crises," Global Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 27-47.
  11. Ayala, Astrid & Blazsek, Szabolcs, 2013. "Structural breaks in public finances in Central and Eastern European countries," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 45-60.
  12. Michal SKOREPA, 2013. "Troubles in the Euro Area Periphery: The View through the Lens of a Simple Convergence-Sensitive Optimum Currency Area Index," Czech Journal of Economics and Finance (Finance a uver), Charles University Prague, Faculty of Social Sciences, vol. 63(2), pages 129-151, May.
  13. Ádám Török, 2007. "Industrial Policy in the New Member Countries of the European Union: A Survey of Patterns and Initiatives Since 1990," Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Springer, vol. 7(3), pages 255-271, December.
  14. Giulio Palomba & Emma Sarno & Alberto Zazzaro, 2009. "Testing similarities of short-run inflation dynamics among EU-25 countries after the Euro," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 37(2), pages 231-270, October.
  15. Václav Žďárek, 2008. "Some thoughts on nominal convergence, its drivers and determinants for the new eu member states preparing the euro adoption," Prague Economic Papers, University of Economics, Prague, vol. 2008(4), pages 291-318.
  16. Jarko Fidrmuc & Roman Horváth, 2006. "Credibility of Exchange Rate Policies in Selected EU New Members: Evidence from High Frequency Data," Working Papers IES 2006/28, Charles University Prague, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute of Economic Studies, revised Oct 2006.

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