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The Effect of SOX Internal Control Deficiencies on Firm Risk and Cost of Equity

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  • HOLLIS ASHBAUGH-SKAIFE
  • DANIEL W. COLLINS
  • WILLIAM R. KINNEY JR
  • RYAN LAFOND
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    Abstract

    ABSTRACT The Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) mandates management evaluation and independent audits of internal control effectiveness. The mandate is costly to firms but may yield benefits through lower information risk that translates into lower cost of equity. We use unaudited pre-SOX 404 disclosures and SOX 404 audit opinions to assess how changes in internal control quality affect firm risk and cost of equity. After controlling for other risk factors, we find that firms with internal control deficiencies have significantly higher idiosyncratic risk, systematic risk, and cost of equity. Our change analyses document that auditor-confirmed changes in internal control effectiveness (including remediation of previously disclosed internal control deficiencies) are followed by significant changes in the cost of equity that range from 50 to 150 basis points. Overall, our cross-sectional and intertemporal change test results are consistent with internal control reports affecting investors' risk assessments and firms' cost of equity. Copyright (c), University of Chicago on behalf of the Institute of Professional Accounting, 2008.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Wiley Blackwell in its journal Journal of Accounting Research.

    Volume (Year): 47 (2009)
    Issue (Month): 1 (03)
    Pages: 1-43

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    Handle: RePEc:bla:joares:v:47:y:2009:i:1:p:1-43

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    Cited by:
    1. Waters, James, 2011. "The effect of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act on innovation," MPRA Paper 28072, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Hou, Kewei & van Dijk, Mathijs A. & Zhang, Yinglei, 2012. "The implied cost of capital: A new approach," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(3), pages 504-526.
    3. Skaife, Hollis A. & Veenman, David & Wangerin, Daniel, 2013. "Internal control over financial reporting and managerial rent extraction: Evidence from the profitability of insider trading," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(1), pages 91-110.
    4. Waters, James, 2013. "The Sarbanes-Oxley Act, industrial innovation, and real option creation," MPRA Paper 49173, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Dechow, Patricia & Ge, Weili & Schrand, Catherine, 2010. "Understanding earnings quality: A review of the proxies, their determinants and their consequences," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(2-3), pages 344-401, December.
    6. Su, Lixin (Nancy) & Zhao, Xuezhou (Rachel) & Zhou, Gaoguang (Stephen), 2014. "Do customers respond to the disclosure of internal control weakness?," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 67(7), pages 1508-1518.
    7. Jin, Justin Yiqiang & Kanagaretnam, Kiridaran & Lobo, Gerald J., 2013. "Unintended consequences of the increased asset threshold for FDICIA internal controls: Evidence from U.S. private banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(12), pages 4879-4892.
    8. Cheng, Mei & Dhaliwal, Dan & Zhang, Yuan, 2013. "Does investment efficiency improve after the disclosure of material weaknesses in internal control over financial reporting?," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(1), pages 1-18.
    9. Martina Vitézová, 2011. "Market Perception of SOX Act in the Case of US Listed Banks," European Research Studies Journal, European Research Studies Journal, vol. 0(4), pages 155-170.
    10. LaFond, Ryan & You, Haifeng, 2010. "The federal deposit insurance corporation improvement act, bank internal controls and financial reporting quality," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(1-2), pages 75-83, February.
    11. Feng, Mei & Li, Chan & McVay, Sarah, 2009. "Internal control and management guidance," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(2-3), pages 190-209, December.
    12. Nishizaki, Riku & Takano, Yudai & Takeda, Fumiko, 2014. "Information Content of Internal Control Weaknesses: The Evidence from Japan," The International Journal of Accounting, Elsevier, vol. 49(1), pages 1-26.

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