Consumption Externalities and Diffusion in Pharmaceutical Markets: Antiulcer Drugs
AbstractWe examine the role of consumption externalities in the demand for pharmaceuticals at both the brand level and over a therapeutic class of drugs. Externalities emerge when use of a drug by others affects its value, and/or conveys information about efficacy and safety to patients and physicians. This can affect the rate of market diffusion for a new entrant, and can lead to dominance of one drug despite the availability of close substitutes. We use data for H 2-antagonist antiulcer drugs to estimate a dynamic demand model and quantify these effects. The model has three components: an hedonic price equation that measures how the aggregate usage of a drug, as well as conventional attributes, affect brand valuation; equations relating equilibrium market shares to quality-adjusted prices and marketing levels; and diffusion equations describing the dynamic adjustment process. We find that consumption externalities influence both valuations and rates of diffusion, and that they operate at the brand and not the therapeutic class level. Copyright Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 2003.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Wiley Blackwell in its journal The Journal of Industrial Economics.
Volume (Year): 51 (2003)
Issue (Month): 2 (06)
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0022-1821
Other versions of this item:
- Ernst R. Berndt & Robert S. Pindyck & Pierre Azoulay, 2000. "Consumption Externalities and Diffusion in Pharmaceutical Markets: Antiulcer Drugs," NBER Working Papers 7772, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- D12 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Consumer Economics: Empirical Analysis
- L65 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Manufacturing - - - Chemicals; Rubber; Drugs; Biotechnology
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Scharfstein, David S & Stein, Jeremy C, 1990.
"Herd Behavior and Investment,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 80(3), pages 465-79, June.
- Goolsbee, Austan & Klenow, Peter J, 2002.
"Evidence on Learning and Network Externalities in the Diffusion of Home Computers,"
Journal of Law and Economics,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 45(2), pages 317-43, October.
- Austan Goolsbee & Peter J. Klenow, 1999. "Evidence on Learning and Network Externalities in the Diffusion of Home Computers," NBER Working Papers 7329, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Beggs, Alan W & Klemperer, Paul, 1992.
"Multi-period Competition with Switching Costs,"
Econometric Society, vol. 60(3), pages 651-66, May.
- Stanley M. Besen & Joseph Farrell, 1994. "Choosing How to Compete: Strategies and Tactics in Standardization," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 8(2), pages 117-131, Spring.
- Berry, Steven & Levinsohn, James & Pakes, Ariel, 1995. "Automobile Prices in Market Equilibrium," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 63(4), pages 841-90, July.
- Erik Brynjolfsson & Chris F. Kemerer, 1993.
"Network Externalities in Microcomputer Software: An Econometric Analysis of the Spreadsheet Market,"
Working Paper Series
158, MIT Center for Coordination Science.
- Erik Brynjolfsson & Chris F. Kemerer, 1996. "Network Externalities in Microcomputer Software: An Econometric Analysis of the Spreadsheet Market," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 42(12), pages 1627-1647, December.
- McFadden, Daniel L., 1984. "Econometric analysis of qualitative response models," Handbook of Econometrics, in: Z. Griliches† & M. D. Intriligator (ed.), Handbook of Econometrics, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 24, pages 1395-1457 Elsevier.
- Iain M. Cockburn & Aslam H. Anis, 2001.
"Hedonic Analysis of Arthritis Drugs,"
in: Medical Care Output and Productivity, pages 439-462
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Paul A. David, 1997.
"Path Dependence and the Quest for Historical Economics: One More chorus of Ballad of QWERTY,"
Oxford University Economic and Social History Series
_020, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
- Paul David, 1997. "Path Dependence and the Quest for Historical Economics: One More chorus of Ballad of QWERTY," Economics Series Working Papers 1997-W20, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
- Kessler, Daniel & McClellan, Mark, 1996. "Do Doctors Practice Defensive Medicine?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 111(2), pages 353-90, May.
- Zvi Griliches, 1998.
"Patent Statistics as Economic Indicators: A Survey,"
in: R&D and Productivity: The Econometric Evidence, pages 287-343
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Griliches, Zvi, 1990. "Patent Statistics as Economic Indicators: A Survey," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 28(4), pages 1661-1707, December.
- Zvi Griliches, 1991. "Patent Statistics as Economic Indicators: A Survey," NBER Working Papers 3301, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Z. John Lu & William S. Comanor, 1998. "Strategic Pricing Of New Pharmaceuticals," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 80(1), pages 108-118, February.
- repec:fth:harver:1473 is not listed on IDEAS
- Banerjee, Abhijit V, 1992. "A Simple Model of Herd Behavior," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 107(3), pages 797-817, August.
- Zvi Griliches, 1958. "Research Costs and Social Returns: Hybrid Corn and Related Innovations," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 66, pages 419.
- Daniel P. Kessler & Mark McClellan, 1996. "Do Doctors Practice Defensive Medicine?," NBER Working Papers 5466, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Sternitzke, Christian, 2013. "An exploratory analysis of patent fencing in pharmaceuticals: The case of PDE5 inhibitors," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(2), pages 542-551.
- Feng, Yao, 2011. "Local spillovers and learning from neighbors: Evidence from durable adoptions in rural China," MPRA Paper 33924, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Michal Grajek, 2007.
"Estimating Network Effects and Compatibility in Mobile Telecommunications,"
ESMT Research Working Papers
ESMT-07-001, ESMT European School of Management and Technology.
- Michal Grajek, 2003. "Estimating Network Effects and Compatibility in Mobile Telecommunications," CIG Working Papers SP II 2003-26, Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin (WZB), Research Unit: Competition and Innovation (CIG).
- Peter J. Klenow, 2003. "Measuring consumption growth: the impact of new and better products," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, issue Win, pages 10-23.
- Michael Thompson & Steve Thompson, 2006. "Pricing in a market without apparent horizontal differentiation: Evidence from web hosting services," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(7), pages 649-663.
- Ernst R. Berndt & Patricia M. Danzon & Gregory B. Kruse, 2007. "Dynamic competition in pharmaceuticals: cross-national evidence from new drug diffusion," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 28(4-5), pages 231-250.
- Ching, Andrew, 2008.
"Consumer Learning and Heterogeneity: Dynamics of Demand for Prescription Drugs after Patent Expiration,"
7265, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Ching, Andrew T., 2010. "Consumer learning and heterogeneity: Dynamics of demand for prescription drugs after patent expiration," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 28(6), pages 619-638, November.
- Grajek, Michal, 2010. "Estimating network effects and compatibility: Evidence from the Polish mobile market," Information Economics and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 130-143, May.
- Rong, Zhao, 2011. "Free riding and durable adoption: a test of color television consumption in rural China," MPRA Paper 33434, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Sorisio, Enrico & Strøm, Steinar, 2006.
"Innovation and market dynamics in the EPO market,"
12/2006, Oslo University, Department of Economics.
- Ching, Andrew & Ishihara, Masakazu, 2007. "The Effects of Detailing on Prescribing Decisions under Two-Sided Learning," MPRA Paper 4935, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Peters, Kay & Albers, Sönke & Kumar, V., 2008. "Is there more to international Diffusion than Culture? An investigation on the Role of Marketing and Industry Variables," EconStor Preprints 27678, ZBW - German National Library of Economics.
- Jaffe, Adam B. & Newell, Richard G. & Stavins, Robert N., 2003. "Chapter 11 Technological change and the environment," Handbook of Environmental Economics, in: K. G. Mäler & J. R. Vincent (ed.), Handbook of Environmental Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 11, pages 461-516 Elsevier.
- Lee G. Branstetter & Chirantan Chatterjee & Matthew Higgins, 2011. "Regulation and Welfare: Evidence from Paragraph IV Generic Entry in the Pharmaceutical Industry," NBER Working Papers 17188, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Jaison R. Abel & Ernst R. Berndt & Alan G. White, 2003. "Price Indexes for Microsoft's Personal Computer Software Products," NBER Working Papers 9966, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Birke, Daniel & Swann, G.M. Peter, 2010. "Network effects, network structure and consumer interaction in mobile telecommunications in Europe and Asia," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 76(2), pages 153-167, November.
- Richard G. Frank & Ernst R. Berndt & Alisa B. Busch, 2003. "Quality-Constant Price Indexes for the Ongoing Treatment of Schizophrenia: An Exploratory Study," NBER Working Papers 10022, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Ernst Berndt & Iain Cockburn & Karen Grépin, 2006. "The Impact of Incremental Innovation in Biopharmaceuticals," PharmacoEconomics, Springer, vol. 24(2), pages 69-86, December.
- Dag Dalen & Steinar Strøm & Tonje Haabeth, 2006.
"Price regulation and generic competition in the pharmaceutical market,"
The European Journal of Health Economics,
Springer, vol. 7(3), pages 204-211, September.
- Dalen, Dag Morten & Strøm, Steinar & Haabeth, Tonje, 2005. "Price regulation and generic competition in the pharmaceutical market," Memorandum 33/2005, Oslo University, Department of Economics.
- Dalen, Dag Morten & Habeth, Tonje & Strøm, Steinar, 2009. "Price regulation and generic competition in the pharmaceutical market," HERO On line Working Paper Series 2006:1, Oslo University, Health Economics Research Programme.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Wiley-Blackwell Digital Licensing) or (Christopher F. Baum).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.