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Venture Capital and IPO Lockup Expiration: An Empirical Analysis

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  • Bradley, Daniel J
  • et al
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    Abstract

    Most initial public offerings (IOPs) feature "lockup" agreements, which bar insiders from selling the stock for a set period following the IPO, usually 180 days. We examine stock price behavior in the period surrounding lockup expiration for a sample of 2,529 firms from 1988 to 1997. We find that lockup expirations are, on average, associated with significant and negative abnormal returns, but the losses are concentrated in firms with venture capital backing. For the venture-capital-backed group, the largest losses occur for high-tech firms and firms with the greatest post-IPO stock price increases, the largest relative trading volume in the period surrounding expiration, and the highest quality underwriters.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Southern Finance Association & Southwestern Finance Association in its journal Journal of Financial Research.

    Volume (Year): 24 (2001)
    Issue (Month): 4 (Winter)
    Pages: 465-93

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    Handle: RePEc:bla:jfnres:v:24:y:2001:i:4:p:465-93

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    Web page: http://www.southwesternfinance.org/
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    Cited by:
    1. Zheng, Steven X., 2007. "Are IPOs really overpriced?," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 287-309, June.
    2. Riccardo Ferretti & Antonio Meles, 2010. "Underpricing, wealth loss for pre-existing shareholders and the cost of going public: the role of private equity backing in Italian IPOs," Venture Capital, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(1), pages 23-47, September.
    3. Jain, Bharat A. & Jayaraman, Narayanan & Kini, Omesh, 2008. "The path-to-profitability of Internet IPO firms," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 165-194, March.
    4. Bouis, Romain, 2003. "Optimistic Investors, IPOs Cycle and Real Investment," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/3411, Paris Dauphine University.
    5. Daying Yan & Jun Cai, 2003. "Long-Run Operating Performance of Initial Public Offerings in Japanese Over-the-Counter Market (1991–2001): Evidence and Implications," Asia-Pacific Financial Markets, Springer, vol. 10(2), pages 239-274, September.
    6. Didier Cossin & Benoît Leleux & Entela Saliasi, 2002. "Understanding the Economic Value of Legal Covenants in Investment Contracts: A Real-Options Approach to Venture Equity Contracts," Swiss Finance Institute Research Paper Series rp63, Swiss Finance Institute.
    7. Jarrod Johnston & Jeff Madura & Joel Harper, 2005. "Interaction Between Short Selling and Potential Insider Selling in the IPO Aftermarket," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer, vol. 27(3), pages 283-302, September.
    8. Arthurs, Jonathan D. & Busenitz, Lowell W., 2006. "Dynamic capabilities and venture performance: The effects of venture capitalists," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 21(2), pages 195-215, March.
    9. Goergen, M. & Renneboog, L.D.R., 2005. "Shareholder Lock-In Contracts: Share Price and Trading Volume Effects at the Lock-In Expiry," Discussion Paper 2005-030, Tilburg University, Tilburg Law and Economic Center.
    10. Karpoff, Jonathan M. & Lee, Gemma & Masulis, Ronald W., 2013. "Contracting under asymmetric information: Evidence from lockup agreements in seasoned equity offerings," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 110(3), pages 607-626.
    11. Hsuan-Chi Chen & Wen-Chung Guo, 2010. "Divergence of opinion and initial public offerings," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 34(1), pages 59-79, January.
    12. Klein, Dan & Li, Mingsheng, 2009. "Factors affecting secondary share offerings in the IPO process," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 49(3), pages 1194-1212, August.
    13. Harper, Joel T. & Johnston, Jarrod & Madura, Jeff, 2004. "Follow-on offerings," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 251-264, January.
    14. Yung, Chris & Zender, Jaime F., 2010. "Moral hazard, asymmetric information and IPO lockups," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 320-332, June.
    15. Geczy, Christopher C. & Musto, David K. & Reed, Adam V., 2002. "Stocks are special too: an analysis of the equity lending market," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(2-3), pages 241-269.
    16. Krishnamurti, Chandrasekhar & Thong, Tiong Yang, 2008. "Lockup expiration, insider selling and bid-ask spreads," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 230-244.
    17. Hsuan-Chi Chen & Robert Fok & Chiuling Lu, 2011. "An Analysis of Lockups in REIT IPOs," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 43(3), pages 359-384, October.
    18. Bouis, Romain, 2003. "IPOs cycle and investment in high-tech industries," CFS Working Paper Series 2003/47, Center for Financial Studies (CFS).
    19. Arthurs, Jonathan D. & Busenitz, Lowell W. & Hoskisson, Robert E. & Johnson, Richard A., 2009. "Signaling and initial public offerings: The use and impact of the lockup period," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 24(4), pages 360-372, July.
    20. Aggarwal, Rajesh K. & Krigman, Laurie & Womack, Kent L., 2002. "Strategic IPO underpricing, information momentum, and lockup expiration selling," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(1), pages 105-137, October.

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