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Liquidity Cycles and Make/Take Fees in Electronic Markets

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  • THIERRY FOUCAULT
  • OHAD KADAN
  • EUGENE KANDEL

Abstract

In this paper, the authors develop a dynamic model of trading with two specialized sides: traders posting quotes (“market makers”) and traders hitting quotes (“market takers”). Traders monitor the market to seize profit opportunities, generating high frequency make/take liquidity cycles. Monitoring decisions by market-makers and market-takers are self-reinforcing, generating multiple equilibria with differing liquidity levels and duration clustering. The trading rate is typically maximized when makers and takers are charged different fees or even paid rebates, as observed in reality. The model yields several empirical implications regarding the determinants of make/take fees, the trading rate, the bid-ask spread, and the effect of algorithmic trading on these variables. Finally, algorithmic trading can improve welfare because it increases the rate at which gains from trade are realized.

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File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1111/j.1540-6261.2012.01801.x
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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by American Finance Association in its journal Journal of Finance.

Volume (Year): 68 (2013)
Issue (Month): 1 (02)
Pages: 299-341

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Handle: RePEc:bla:jfinan:v:68:y:2013:i:1:p:299-341

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References

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  1. Hans Degryse & Frank Jong & Maarten Ravenswaaij & Gunther Wuyts, 2005. "Aggressive Orders and the Resiliency of a Limit Order Market," Review of Finance, Springer, vol. 9(2), pages 201-242, 06.
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  4. FOUCAULT, Thierry & KADAN, Ohad & KANDEL, Eugene, 2001. "Limit order book as a market for liquidity," Les Cahiers de Recherche 728, HEC Paris.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Cecilia Caglio & Stewart Mayhew, 2012. "Equity trading and the allocation of market data revenue," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2012-65, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  2. Yacine Aït-Sahalia & Mehmet Saglam, 2013. "High Frequency Traders: Taking Advantage of Speed," NBER Working Papers 19531, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Martin L. Scholtus & Dick van Dijk & Bart Frijns, 2012. "Speed, Algorithmic Trading, and Market Quality around Macroeconomic News Announcements," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 12-121/III, Tinbergen Institute.
  4. Rakkestad, Ketil & Skjeltorp, Johannes & Ødegaard, Bernt Arne, 2012. "The liquidity of the Secondary Market for Debt Securities in Norway," UiS Working Papers in Economics and Finance 2012/12, University of Stavanger.
  5. Jean-Edouard Colliard & Thierry Foucault, 2012. "Trading Fees and Efficiency in Limit Order Markets," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 25(11), pages 3389-3421.
  6. Degryse, H.A. & Achter, M. van & Wuyts, G., 2012. "Internalization, Clearing and Settlement, and Liquidity," Discussion Paper 2012-001, Tilburg University, Tilburg Law and Economic Center.
  7. Estelle Cantillon & Pai-Ling Yin, 2011. "Competition between Exchanges: A research Agenda," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/99386, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  8. de Jong, Frank & Degryse, Hans & van Kervel, Vincent, 2011. "The impact of dark trading and visible fragmentation on market quality," CEPR Discussion Papers 8630, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  9. Degryse, H.A. & Jong, F.C.J.M. de & Kervel, V.L. van, 2011. "The Impact of Dark and Visible Fragmentation on Market Quality (Replaces CentER Discussion Paper 2011-051)," Discussion Paper 2011-069, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  10. Albert J. Menkveld, 2011. "High Frequency Trading and the New-Market Makers," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 11-076/2/DSF21, Tinbergen Institute, revised 15 Aug 2011.
  11. Johannes A. Skjeltorp & Elvira Sojli & Wing Wah Tham, 2013. "Identifying Cross-Sided Liquidity Externalities," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 13-154/IV/DSF63, Tinbergen Institute.

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