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The Real and Financial Implications of Corporate Hedging

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  • MURILLO CAMPELLO
  • CHEN LIN
  • YUE MA
  • HONG ZOU

Abstract

We study the implications of hedging for firm financing and investment. We do so using an extensive, hand-collected dataset on corporate hedging activities. Hedging can lower the odds of negative firm realizations, reducing the expected costs of financial distress. In theory, this should ease a firm's access to credit. Using a tax-based instrumental variable approach, we find that hedgers pay lower interest spreads and are less likely to have capital expenditure restrictions in their loan agreements. These favorable financing terms, in turn, allow hedgers to invest more. Our tests characterize two exact channels (cost of borrowing and investment restrictions) through which hedging affects corporate outcomes. The analysis we present shows that hedging has a first-order effect on firm financing and investment, and provides new insights into how hedging affects corporate wealth. More broadly, our study contributes novel evidence on the real consequences of financial contracting.

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File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1111/j.1540-6261.2011.01683.x
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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by American Finance Association in its journal Journal of Finance.

Volume (Year): 66 (2011)
Issue (Month): 5 (October)
Pages: 1615-1647

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Handle: RePEc:bla:jfinan:v:66:y:2011:i:5:p:1615-1647

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References

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  1. Mitchell A. Petersen & S. Ramu Thiagarajan, 2000. "Risk Measurement and Hedging: With and Without Derivatives," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 29(4), Winter.
  2. Lin, Chen-Miao & Phillips, Richard D. & Smith, Stephen D., 2008. "Hedging, financing, and investment decisions: Theory and empirical tests," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(8), pages 1566-1582, August.
  3. Georges Dionne & Thouraya Triki, 2005. "Risk Management and Corporate Governance: the Importance of Independence and Financial Knowledge for the Board and the Audit Committee," Cahiers de recherche 0515, CIRPEE.
  4. G. Dionne & M. Garand, 2000. "Risk Management Determinants Affecting Firms' Values in the Gold Mining Industry : New Empirical Results," THEMA Working Papers 2000-48, THEMA (THéorie Economique, Modélisation et Applications), Université de Cergy-Pontoise.
  5. Sudheer Chava & Michael R. Roberts, 2008. "How Does Financing Impact Investment? The Role of Debt Covenants," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 63(5), pages 2085-2121, October.
  6. Sudheer Chava & Dmitry Livdan & Amiyatosh Purnanandam, 2009. "Do Shareholder Rights Affect the Cost of Bank Loans?," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(8), pages 2973-3004, August.
  7. John R. Graham & Si Li & Jiaping Qiu, 2007. "Corporate Misreporting and Bank Loan Contracting," NBER Working Papers 13708, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Bessembinder, Hendrik, 1991. "Forward Contracts and Firm Value: Investment Incentive and Contracting Effects," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 26(04), pages 519-532, December.
  9. Shane A. Johnson, 2003. "Debt Maturity and the Effects of Growth Opportunities and Liquidity Risk on Leverage," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 16(1), pages 209-236.
  10. Heitor Almeida & Murillo Campello & Bruno Laranjeira & Scott Weisbenner, 2009. "Corporate Debt Maturity and the Real Effects of the 2007 Credit Crisis," NBER Working Papers 14990, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Heitor Almeida & Murillo Campello & Igor Cunha & Michael S. Weisbach, 2013. "Corporate Liquidity Management: A Conceptual Framework and Survey," NBER Working Papers 19502, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Xavier Gine & James Vickery & Shawn Cole, 2013. "How Does Risk Management Influence Production Decisions? Evidence From a Field Experiment," 2013 Meeting Papers 676, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  3. Lievenbrück, Martin & Schmid, Thomas, 2014. "Why do firms (not) hedge? — Novel evidence on cultural influence," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 92-106.
  4. Lin, Chen & Officer, Micah S. & Wang, Rui & Zou, Hong, 2013. "Directors' and officers' liability insurance and loan spreads," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 110(1), pages 37-60.
  5. Mohamed Mnasri & Georges Dionne & Jean-Pierre Gueyie, 2013. "The Maturity Structure of Corporate Hedging: the Case of the U.S. Oil and Gas Industry," Cahiers de recherche 1337, CIRPEE.
  6. Cornaggia, Jess, 2013. "Does risk management matter? Evidence from the U.S. agricultural industry," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 109(2), pages 419-440.
  7. Lin, Chen & Ma, Yue & Malatesta, Paul & Xuan, Yuhai, 2013. "Corporate ownership structure and the choice between bank debt and public debt," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 109(2), pages 517-534.
  8. Georges Dionne & Marc Santugini, 2012. "Entry, Imperfect Competition, and Futures Market for the Input," Cahiers de recherche 1215, CIRPEE.
  9. Lin, Chen & Lin, Ping & Zou, Hong, 2012. "Does property rights protection affect corporate risk management strategy? Intra- and cross-country evidence," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 311-330.
  10. Brian Lucey & Britta Berghöfer, 2013. "Fuel Hedging, Operational Hedging and Risk Exposure– Evidence from the Global Airline Industry," The Institute for International Integration Studies Discussion Paper Series iiisdp433, IIIS.

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