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Private Environmental Activism and the Selection and Response of Firm Targets

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  • Michael J. Lenox
  • Charles E. Eesley
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    Abstract

    "Environmental activists are increasingly resorting to private strategies such as boycotts and protests focused on changing individual firms' behavior. In this paper, we examine activists' use of such "private politics" to engender firm compliance with activist objectives. We begin by developing a simple theoretical model of an activist campaign from which we develop a set of empirical hypotheses based on a set of observable features of firms. We test our hypotheses using a unique dataset of environmental activist campaigns against firms in the United States from 1988 to 2003. This paper fills an important need in the literature as one of the first empirical attempts to examine the private political strategies of activists and has important implications for the burgeoning literatures on industry self-regulation and the nonmarket strategies of firms." Copyright (c) 2009, The Author(s) Journal Compilation (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc..

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Wiley Blackwell in its journal Journal of Economics & Management Strategy.

    Volume (Year): 18 (2009)
    Issue (Month): 1 (03)
    Pages: 45-73

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    Handle: RePEc:bla:jemstr:v:18:y:2009:i:1:p:45-73

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    Web page: http://www.kellogg.northwestern.edu/research/journals/JEMS/

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    Web: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=1058-6407&site=1

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    Cited by:
    1. Christopher Marquis & Michael W. Toffel, 2011. "Scrutiny, Norms, and Selective Disclosure: A Global Study of Greenwashing," Harvard Business School Working Papers 11-115, Harvard Business School, revised Dec 2013.
    2. Cohen, Mark A. & Vandenbergh, Michael P., 2012. "The Potential Role of Carbon Labeling in a Green Economy," Discussion Papers dp-12-09, Resources For the Future.
    3. Baron, David P., 2011. "Credence attributes, voluntary organizations, and social pressure," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(11), pages 1331-1338.
    4. Michael W. Toffel & Jodi L. Short & Melissa Ouellet, 2012. "Codes in Context: How States, Markets, and Civil Society Shape Adherence to Global Labor Standards," Harvard Business School Working Papers 13-045, Harvard Business School, revised May 2014.

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