Determinants of Takeover Premium in Cash Offers: An Option Pricing Approach
AbstractIn takeovers bidders offer a premium to target firm shareholders but the determinants of such premium are not clearly identified. Among the factors previously examined in the literature are prior target undervaluation, expected synergy and overpayment due to behavioural biases like hubris. In this paper we use an option pricing approach to decompose the observed takeover premia. We also test the implications of recent real options-based models of takeover premia and risk changes surrounding takeovers. We model the observed target stock price as a portfolio of unobserved stock price and a put option whose value depends on a number of target and deal characteristics that impinge on the probability of bid success. For a sample of over 200 UK cash takeover bids during 1990-2004, we estimate the put value using the Black-Scholes option pricing model and find that target firm revaluation accounts for a substantial part of the observed takeover premium and the put value accounts for a smaller, but still significant, proportion. The latter is higher in hostile, failed and longer bids. The put option value is also significantly correlated with the relative riskiness of bidders and targets, and synergy as predicted by Lambrecht (2004) . Movements in betas in the run up to takeover announcements and in the post-announcement period are consistent with the real options-based predictions of Hackbarth and Morellec (2008) . This study contributes to a better understanding of the true determinants of takeover premium and demonstrates the usefulness of option pricing models and provides a preliminary test of real options models in understanding and measuring the impact of UK takeovers on firm risk and shareholder gains. Copyright (c) 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Wiley Blackwell in its journal Journal of Business Finance & Accounting.
Volume (Year): 37 (2010-06)
Issue (Month): 5-6 ()
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0306-686X
You can help add them by filling out this form.
reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.Access and download statisticsgeneral information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Wiley-Blackwell Digital Licensing) or (Christopher F. Baum).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.