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The Utilisation of Trade Preferences for Developing Countries in the Agri-food Sector

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  • Jean-Christophe Bureau
  • Raja Chakir
  • Jacques Gallezot

Abstract

Both the European Union and the United States grant non-reciprocal preferences to developing countries under the Generalised System of Preferences as well as under several regional schemes. The benefits of these preferences have recently been questioned. Several authors have pointed out the under-utilisation of these preferences due to the constraints attached. There have been claims that rules of origin requirements and administrative costs, as well as uncertainty on eventual eligibility, have deterred exporters from using preferential regimes. We calculate various indicators of the utilisation of preferences in the agricultural, food and fisheries sector. We conclude that only a very small proportion of the imports eligible for these preferences is actually exported outside a preferential regime. The rate of utilisation is therefore high. However, the flow of imports from the poorest countries remains very limited in spite of rather generous tariff preferences, which leads to questions over the overall impact of the preferential agreements. In addition, preferential regimes overlap, and in such cases some regimes are systematically preferred to others. We use econometric estimates of the (latent) cost of using a given preference to explain why particular regimes are used. We focus on possible explanations, such as the cumulation rules (that restrict the use of materials originating from other countries), fixed administrative costs and differences in the preferential margin. Copyright 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Wiley Blackwell in its journal Journal of Agricultural Economics.

Volume (Year): 58 (2007)
Issue (Month): 2 (06)
Pages: 175-198

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Handle: RePEc:bla:jageco:v:58:y:2007:i:2:p:175-198

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Cited by:
  1. Aiello, Francesco & Demaria, Federica, 2009. "Do trade preferential agreements enhance the exports of developing countries? Evidence from the EU GSP," MPRA Paper 20093, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  2. Hayakawa, Kazunobu, 2014. "Impact of diagonal cumulation rule on FTA utilization: Evidence from bilateral and multilateral FTAs between Japan and Thailand," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 1-16.
  3. Hayakawa, Kazunobu & Kim, HanSung & Nuttawut, Laksanapanyakul & Shiino, Kohei, 2013. "FTA utilization : certificate of origin data versus customs data," IDE Discussion Papers 428, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).
  4. Alessandro Antimiani & Piero Conforti & Luca Salvatici, 2008. "Measuring Restrictiveness of Bilateral Trade Policies: A Comparison between Developed and Developing Countries," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 144(2), pages 207-224, July.
  5. Hayakawa, Kazunobu & Nuttawut, Laksanapanyakul, 2013. "New measures of FTA liberalization level," IDE Discussion Papers 437, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).
  6. Cipollina, Maria & Laborde, David & Salvatici, Luca, 2013. "Do Preferential Trade Policies (Actually) Increase Exports? An analysis of EU trade policies," 2013 Annual Meeting, August 4-6, 2013, Washington, D.C. 150177, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
  7. Cooke, Edgar F. A., 2012. "Is the impact of AGOA heterogeneous?," MPRA Paper 43277, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  8. Scoppola, M. & Raimondi, V. & Olper, A., 2013. "The Impact of EU Trade Preferences on the Extensive and Intensive Agricultural and Food Product Margins," 2013 Annual Meeting, August 4-6, 2013, Washington, D.C. 151145, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
  9. Hayakawa, Kazunobu & Nuttawut, Laksanapanyakul, 2013. "Impacts of common rules of origin on FTA utilization," IDE Discussion Papers 429, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).
  10. Hakobyan, Shushanik, 2011. "Export Competitiveness of Developing Countries and U.S. Trade Policy," Proceedings of the German Development Economics Conference, Berlin 2011 37, Verein für Socialpolitik, Research Committee Development Economics.
  11. Chang, Kuo-I & Hayakawa, Kazunobu, 2012. "Selection and utilization of the early harvest list : evidence from the Free Trade Agreement between China and Taiwan," IDE Discussion Papers 365, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).
  12. Hayakawa, Kazunobu & Yang, Chih-Hai, 2013. "How do free trade agreements change import prices? : firm-level evidence from China's imports from ASEAN," IDE Discussion Papers 436, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).
  13. Hayakawa, Kazunobu & Nuttawut, Laksanapanyakul & Shiino, Kohei, 2013. "Some practical guidance for the computation of free trade agreement utilization rates," IDE Discussion Papers 438, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).

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