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An Assessment of Bank Merger Success in Germany

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  • Michael Koetter

Abstract

German banks have experienced a merger wave since the early 1990s. However, the success of bank mergers remains a continuous matter of debate.This paper suggests a taxonomy to evaluate post-merger performance on the basis of cost and profit efficiency (CE and PE). I identify successful mergers as those that fulfill simultaneously two criteria. First, merged institutes must exhibit efficiency levels above the average of non-merging banks. Second, banks must exhibit efficiency changes between merger and evaluation year above efficiency changes of non-merging banks. I assess the post-merger performance up to 11 years after the mergers and relate it to the transfer of skills, the adequacy to merge distressed banks and the role of geographical distance. Roughly every second merger is a success in terms of either CE or PE. The margin of success in terms of CE is narrow, as efficiency differentials between merging and non-merging banks are around 1 and 2 percentage points. PE performance is slightly larger. More importantly, mergers boost in particular the change in PE, thus indicating persistent improvements of merging banks to improve the ability to generate profits. Copyright 2008 The Authors.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Verein für Socialpolitik in its journal German Economic Review.

Volume (Year): 9 (2008)
Issue (Month): (05)
Pages: 232-264

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Handle: RePEc:bla:germec:v:9:y:2008:i::p:232-264

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  1. Altunbas, Yener & Goddard, John & Molyneux, Phil, 1999. "Technical change in banking," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 64(2), pages 215-221, August.
  2. Lang, Gunter & Welzel, Peter, 1996. "Efficiency and technical progress in banking Empirical results for a panel of German cooperative banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(6), pages 1003-1023, July.
  3. J.W.B. Bos & M. Koetter, 2007. "Handling losses in translog profit models," Working Papers 07-17, Utrecht School of Economics.
  4. Koetter, M. & Bos, J.W.B. & Heid, F. & Kolari, J.W. & Kool, C.J.M. & Porath, D., 2007. "Accounting for distress in bank mergers," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(10), pages 3200-3217, October.
  5. Stavros Peristiani, 1996. "Do mergers improve the x-efficiency and scale efficiency of U.S. banks?: Evidence from the 1980s," Research Paper 9623, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  6. Koetter, Michael & Kick, Thomas, 2007. "Slippery slopes of stress: ordered failure events in German banking," Discussion Paper Series 2: Banking and Financial Studies 2007,03, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
  7. Greene, William, 2005. "Reconsidering heterogeneity in panel data estimators of the stochastic frontier model," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 126(2), pages 269-303, June.
  8. Waldman, Donald M., 1982. "A stationary point for the stochastic frontier likelihood," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 275-279, February.
  9. Newey, Whitney K., 1987. "Efficient estimation of limited dependent variable models with endogenous explanatory variables," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 36(3), pages 231-250, November.
  10. Jalal D. Akhavein & Allen N. Berger & David B. Humphrey, 1997. "The effects of megamergers on efficiency and prices: evidence from a bank profit function," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1997-9, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  11. Hempell, Hannah S., 2002. "Testing for Competition Among German Banks," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2002,04, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
  12. Jondrow, James & Knox Lovell, C. A. & Materov, Ivan S. & Schmidt, Peter, 1982. "On the estimation of technical inefficiency in the stochastic frontier production function model," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 19(2-3), pages 233-238, August.
  13. Lang, Gunter & Welzel, Peter, 1999. " Mergers among German Cooperative Banks: A Panel-Based Stochastic Frontier Analysis," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 13(4), pages 273-86, December.
  14. Francisco Pérez García & Javier Quesada Ibañez & Joaquín Maudos Villarroya & José Manuel Pastor Monsálvez, 1999. "- Cost And Profit Efficiency In European Banks," Working Papers. Serie EC 1999-12, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
  15. Michael Koetter, 2006. "Measurement Matters—Alternative Input Price Proxies for Bank Efficiency Analyses," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer, vol. 30(2), pages 199-227, October.
  16. Altunbas, Yener & Evans, Lynne & Molyneux, Philip, 2001. "Bank Ownership and Efficiency," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 33(4), pages 926-54, November.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Heid, Frank & Behr, Andreas, 2008. "The success of bank mergers revisited: an assessment based on a matching strategy," Discussion Paper Series 2: Banking and Financial Studies 2008,06, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
  2. Horst Gischer & Toni Richter, 2011. "'Global Player' im Bankenwesen - ökonomisch sinnvoll oder problembehaftet?," FEMM Working Papers 110012, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Faculty of Economics and Management.
  3. Fiorentino, Elisabetta & Vincenzo, Alessio De & Heid, Frank & Karmann, Alexander & Koetter, Michael, 2009. "The effects of privatization and consolidation on bank productivity: comparative evidence from Italy and Germany," Discussion Paper Series 2: Banking and Financial Studies 2009,03, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
  4. Bernad, Cristina & Fuentelsaz, Lucio & Gómez, Jaime, 2010. "The effect of mergers and acquisitions on productivity: An empirical application to Spanish banking," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 38(5), pages 283-293, October.
  5. Stolz, Stéphanie & Wedow, Michael, 2011. "Banks' regulatory capital buffer and the business cycle: Evidence for Germany," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 7(2), pages 98-110, June.
  6. Koetter, Michael & Poghosyan, Tigran, 2008. "The implications of latent technology regimes for competition and efficiency in banking," Discussion Paper Series 2: Banking and Financial Studies 2008,15, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.

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