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The execution of monetary policy: a tale of two central banks

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  • Leonardo Bartolini
  • Alessandro Prati

Abstract

The Eurosystem and the U.S. Federal Reserve System follow quite different approaches to the execution of monetary policy. The former institution adopts a "hands-off" approach that largely delegates to depository institutions the task of stabilizing their own liquidity at high frequency. The latter institution follows a much more "hands-on" approach involving daily intervention to fine-tune the liquidity of the banking system. We review the implications of these contrasting approaches, focusing on their impact on the high-frequency behavior of very short-term interest rates. We also examine interest rate behavior following the Y2K date change and the 9/11/2001 crisis - events that required the two central banks to deviate significantly from their customary style of liquidity management. We find that, despite differences in operational framework, certain elements of the institutions' styles of day-to-day intervention have caused very short-term interest rates to behave similarly in the euro area and the United States. Significantly, during periods of anticipated or actual crisis, the two institutions have acted very much alike in managing the liquidity of the interbank market in response to shocks.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by CEPR & CES & MSH in its journal Economic Policy.

Volume (Year): 18 (2003)
Issue (Month): 37 (October)
Pages: 435-467

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Handle: RePEc:bla:ecpoli:v:18:y:2003:i:37:p:435-467

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References

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  1. Selva Demiralp & Oscar Jorda, . "The Announcement Effect: Evidence from Open Market Desk Data," Department of Economics 01-04, California Davis - Department of Economics.
  2. Prati, Alessandro & Bartolini, Leonardo & Bertola, Giuseppe, 2003. "The overnight interbank market: Evidence from the G-7 and the Euro zone," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(10), pages 2045-2083, October.
  3. Paolo Angelini, 2008. "Liquidity And Announcement Effects In The Euro Area," Giornale degli Economisti, GDE (Giornale degli Economisti e Annali di Economia), Bocconi University, vol. 67(1), pages 1-20, March.
  4. Gaspar, Vítor & Pérez Quirós, Gabriel & Sicilia, Jorge, 2001. "The ECB monetary policy strategy and the money market," Working Paper Series 0069, European Central Bank.
  5. Livio Stracca & Clara Martin Moss & Livio Stracca, 2004. "Demand and supply in the ECB's main refinancing operations," Money Macro and Finance (MMF) Research Group Conference 2003 94, Money Macro and Finance Research Group.
  6. Hartmann, Philipp & Manna, Michele & Manzanares, Andres, 2001. "The Microstructure of the Euro Money Market," CEPR Discussion Papers 3081, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  7. Paul Bennett & Spence Hilton, 1997. "Falling reserve balances and the federal funds rate," Current Issues in Economics and Finance, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, vol. 3(May).
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  11. Andersen, Torben G. & Lund, Jesper, 1997. "Estimating continuous-time stochastic volatility models of the short-term interest rate," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 77(2), pages 343-377, April.
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  13. Ayuso, Juan & Repullo, Rafael, 2001. "Why did the banks overbid? An empirical model of the fixed rate tenders of the European Central Bank," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(6), pages 857-870, November.
  14. Quiro, G.P. & Mendizabal, H.R., 2001. "The Daily Market for Funds in Europe: Has Something Changed with the EMU," Papers 67, Quebec a Montreal - Recherche en gestion.
  15. Würtz, Flemming Reinhardt, 2003. "A comprehensive model on the euro overnight rate," Working Paper Series 0207, European Central Bank.
  16. Hamilton, James D, 1996. "The Daily Market for Federal Funds," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 104(1), pages 26-56, February.
  17. Bindseil, Ulrich & Seitz, Franz, 2001. "The supply and demand for Eurosystem deposits - The first 18 months," Working Paper Series 0044, European Central Bank.
  18. Denis Blenck & Harri Hasko & Spence Hilton & Kazuhiro Masaki, 2001. "The main features of the monetary policy frameworks of the Bank of Japan, the Federal Reserve and the Eurosystem," BIS Papers chapters, in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Comparing monetary policy operating procedures across the United States, Japan and the euro area, volume 9, pages 23-56 Bank for International Settlements.
  19. Nelson, Daniel B, 1991. "Conditional Heteroskedasticity in Asset Returns: A New Approach," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(2), pages 347-70, March.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Livio Stracca & Clara Martin Moss & Livio Stracca, 2004. "Demand and supply in the ECB's main refinancing operations," Money Macro and Finance (MMF) Research Group Conference 2003 94, Money Macro and Finance Research Group.
  2. Friedman, Benjamin M. & Kuttner, Kenneth N., 2010. "Implementation of Monetary Policy: How Do Central Banks Set Interest Rates?," Handbook of Monetary Economics, in: Benjamin M. Friedman & Michael Woodford (ed.), Handbook of Monetary Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 24, pages 1345-1438 Elsevier.
  3. Freixas, Xavier & Parigi, Bruno & Rochet, Jean-Charles, 2003. "The Lender of Last Resort: A 21th Century Approach," IDEI Working Papers 215, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.
  4. Chiara Scotti, 2006. "A bivariate model of Fed and ECB main policy rates," International Finance Discussion Papers 875, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  5. John Hawkins, 2005. "Globalisation and monetary operations in emerging economies," BIS Papers chapters, in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Globalisation and monetary policy in emerging markets, volume 23, pages 59-80 Bank for International Settlements.
  6. Sánchez-Fung, José R., 2008. "The day-to-day interbank market, volatility, and central bank intervention in a developing economy," MPRA Paper 15648, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  7. Nikolaou, Kleopatra, 2009. "Liquidity (risk) concepts: definitions and interactions," Working Paper Series 1008, European Central Bank.
  8. Fatima Sol Murta, 2007. "The Money Market Daily Session :an UHF-GARCH Model Applied to the Portuguese Case Before and After the Introduction Of the Minimum Reserve System of the Single Monetary Policy," Brussels Economic Review, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles, vol. 50(3), pages 285-314.
  9. Chiara Scotti, 2011. "A Bivariate Model of Federal Reserve and ECB Main Policy Rates," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 7(3), pages 37-78, September.
  10. Cassola, Nuno & Morana, Claudio, 2010. "Comovements in volatility in the euro money market," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 525-539, April.
  11. Stracca, Livio & Ejerskov, Steen & Martin Moss, Clara, 2003. "How does the ECB allot liquidity in its weekly main refinancing operations? A look at the empirical evidence," Working Paper Series 0244, European Central Bank.
  12. Ulrike Neyer & Jürgen Wiemers, 2004. "The Influence of a Heterogeneous Banking Sector on the Interbank Market Rate in the Euro Area," Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics (SJES), Swiss Society of Economics and Statistics (SSES), vol. 140(III), pages 395-428, September.

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