The Structure of Sprawl: Identifying and Characterizing Employment Centers in Polycentric Metropolitan Areas
AbstractThis paper applies a consistent framework to four comparably sized metropolitan areas to identify and characterize their employment centers. Employment centers are identified as places that exceed a threshold employment density and a threshold employment level. They are also characterized as specializing on the basis of location quotient analysis. We find clear evidence of specialization in every employment center in the four metropolitan areas studied. Our interpretation is that what we are observing is a systematic change in metropolitan structure rather than a random sprawling of firms. We also find some evidence that the size distribution of employment centers follows the rank-size rule. This suggests that there is structure not only in the distribution of economic activity among the employment centers but also in their size distribution. Because less than 50 percent of metropolitan employment is within employment centers, future research should focus on understanding the more diffuse employment patterns. The rank-size rule gives some guidance as to the expected size distribution of employment throughout the metropolitan area. Copyright 2001 The American Journal of Economics and Sociology.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Wiley Blackwell in its journal The American Journal of Economics and Sociology.
Volume (Year): 60 (2001)
Issue (Month): 1 (01)
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0002-9246
You can help add them by filling out this form.
CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
- Paolo VENERI, 2010. "The Identification of Sub-centres in Two Italian Metropolitan Areas: a Functional Approach," Working Papers 343, Universita' Politecnica delle Marche (I), Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Sociali.
- BOITEUX-ORAIN, Céline & GUILLAIN, Rachel, 2003. "Changes in the intra-metropolitan location of producer services in Ile-De-France (1978-1997): do information technologies promote a more dispersed spatial pattern," LEG - Document de travail - Economie 2003-06, LEG, Laboratoire d'Economie et de Gestion, CNRS, Université de Bourgogne.
- Miguel Ángel García & Ivan Muñiz, 2005. "Descentralización del empleo: ¿compactación policéntrica o dispersión? El caso de la región metropolitana de Barcelona 1986-1996," Working Papers wpdea0506, Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona.
- Carlos Marmolejo Duarte & Carlos Aguirre NuÃ±ez & Eduardo Chica Mejia & Claudia Perez Prieto & Jaume Masip Tresserra, 2011. "Polycentrism in the Spanish metropolitan system: an analysis for 7 metro areas," ERSA conference papers ersa11p119, European Regional Science Association.
- Ajay Agarwal & Genevieve Giuliano & Christian Redfearn, 2012. "Strangers in our midst: the usefulness of exploring polycentricity," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer, vol. 48(2), pages 433-450, April.
- Genevieve Giuliano & Christian Redfearn & Ajay Agarwal & Chen Li & Duan Zhuang, 2005. "Not All Sprawl: Evolution of Employment Concentrations in Los Angeles, 1980-2000," Working Paper 8589, USC Lusk Center for Real Estate.
- Anderson, Nathan B., 2004. "Intrametropolitan Trade: Understanding the Interdependency of the Central-City and Edge Cities," Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy, Mid-Continent Regional Science Association, vol. 34(1).
- Christian L. Redfearn, 2007. "Determinacy in Urban Form: Fixed Investment & Path Dependence in Urban Areas," Working Paper 8559, USC Lusk Center for Real Estate.
- Christian L. Redfearn, 2005. "The Topography of Metropolitan Employment: Identify Centers of Employment in a Polycentric Urban Area," Working Paper 8588, USC Lusk Center for Real Estate.
- McMillen, Daniel P. & Smith, Stefani C., 2003. "The number of subcenters in large urban areas," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(3), pages 321-338, May.
- Miquel-Angel Garcia-Lopez, 2011. "The accessibility city. When transport infrastructure matters in urban spatial structure," ERSA conference papers ersa10p521, European Regional Science Association.
- McMillen, Daniel P. & William Lester, T., 2003. "Evolving subcenters: employment and population densities in Chicago, 1970-2020," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 60-81, March.
- Bumsoo Lee, 2006. "'Edge' or 'Edgeless Cities'? Urban Spatial Structure in US Metropolitan Areas, 1980 to 2000," Working Paper 8574, USC Lusk Center for Real Estate.
- Daniel P. McMillen, 2003. "Employment subcenters in Chicago: past, present, and future," Economic Perspectives, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, issue Q II, pages 2-14.
- Ivan Muñiz & Anna Galindo & Miguel Ángel García, 2005. "Descentralización, integración y policentrismo en Barcelona," Working Papers wpdea0505, Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona.
- Redfearn, Christian L., 2009. "Persistence in urban form: The long-run durability of employment centers in metropolitan areas," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(2), pages 224-232, March.
- William Sander & William Testa, 2013. "Education and the location of work: a continued economic role for central cities?," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer, vol. 50(2), pages 577-590, April.
- Ivan Muñiz & Anna Galindo & Miguel Angel García, 2005. "Descentralisation, Integration and polycentrism in Barcelona," Working Papers wpdea0512, Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona.
- GUILLAIN, Rachel & LE GALLO, Julie & BOITEUX-ORAIN, Céline, 2004.
"The evolution of the spatial and sectoral patterns in Ile-De-France over 1978-1997,"
LEG - Document de travail - Economie
2004-02, LEG, Laboratoire d'Economie et de Gestion, CNRS, Université de Bourgogne.
- Rachel Guillain & Julie Le Gallo & Céline Boiteux-Orain, 2004. "The evolution of the spatial and sectoral patterns in Ile-de-France over 1978-1997," ERSA conference papers ersa04p59, European Regional Science Association.
- Redfearn, Christian L., 2007. "The topography of metropolitan employment: Identifying centers of employment in a polycentric urban area," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 61(3), pages 519-541, May.
- Miguel Angel Garcia Lopez & Ivan Muñiz Olivera, 2005. "Employment descentralisation: polycentric compaction or sprawl? The case of the Barcelona Metropolitan Region 1986-1996," Working Papers wpdea0511, Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona.
- Genevieve Giuliano & Christian Redfearn, 2005. "Not all sprawl - Evolution of employment centers in Los Angeles, 1980 - 2000," ERSA conference papers ersa05p686, European Regional Science Association.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Wiley-Blackwell Digital Licensing) or (Christopher F. Baum).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.