More reasons why farmers have so little interest in futures markets
AbstractThe use by farmers of futures contracts and other hedging instruments has been observed to be low in many situations, and this has sometimes seemed to be considered surprising or even mysterious. We propose that it is, in fact, readily understandable and consistent with rational decision making. Standard models of the decision about optimal hedging show that it is negatively related to basis risk, to quantity risk, and to transaction costs. Farmers who have less uncertainty about prices and those with a diversified portfolio of investments have lower optimal levels of hedging. If a farmer has optimistic price expectations relative to the futures market, the incentive to hedge can be greatly reduced. And finally, farmers who have low levels of risk aversion have little to gain from hedging in terms of risk reduction, in that the certainty-equivalent payoff at their optimal hedge may be little different than the certainty equivalent under zero hedging. These reasons are additional to the argument of Simmons (2002) who showed that, if capital markets are efficient, farmers can manage their risk exposure through adjusting their leverage, obviating the need for hedging instruments. Copyright (c) 2008 International Association of Agricultural Economists.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by International Association of Agricultural Economists in its journal Agricultural Economics.
Volume (Year): 39 (2008)
Issue (Month): 1 (07)
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0169-5150
More information through EDIRC
Other versions of this item:
- Pannell, David J. & Hailu, Getu & Weersink, Alfons & Burt, Amanda, 2007. "More Reasons Why Farmers Have So Little Interest in Futures Markets," Working Papers 9232, University of Western Australia, School of Agricultural and Resource Economics.
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Anderson, Ronald W & Danthine, Jean-Pierre, 1983. "The Time Pattern of Hedging and the Volatility of Futures Prices," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 50(2), pages 249-66, April.
- Wei Shi & Scott H. Irwin, 2005. "Optimal Hedging with a Subjective View: An Empirical Bayesian Approach," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 87(4), pages 918-930.
- Simmons, Phil, 2002. "Why do farmers have so little interest in futures markets?," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 27(1), pages 1-6, May.
- Feder, Gershon & Just, Richard E & Schmitz, Andrew, 1980. "Futures Markets and the Theory of the Firm under Price Uncertainty," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 94(2), pages 317-28, March.
- Peter Bardsley & M. Harris, 1987.
"An Approach To The Econometric Estimation Of Attitudes To Risk In Agriculture,"
Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics,
Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 31(2), pages 112-126, 08.
- Bardsley, Peter & Harris, Michael, 1987. "An Approach To The Econometric Estimation Of Attitudes To Risk In Agriculture," Australian Journal of Agricultural Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 31(02), August.
- Lence, Sergio H. & Hayes, Dermot J., 1994.
"Empirical Minimum-Variance Hedge (The),"
Staff General Research Papers
11565, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
- Sergio H. Lence & Dermot J. Hayes, 1993. "Empirical Minimum Variance Hedge, The," Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) Publications 93-wp109, Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) at Iowa State University.
- Holthausen, Duncan M, 1979. "Hedging and the Competitive Firm under Price Uncertainty," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 69(5), pages 989-95, December.
- Carter, Colin A., 1999. "Commodity futures markets: a survey," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 43(2).
- Danthine, Jean-Pierre, 1978. "Information, futures prices, and stabilizing speculation," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 79-98, February.
- David J. Pannell, 2006. "Flat Earth Economics: The Far-reaching Consequences of Flat Payoff Functions in Economic Decision Making," Review of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 28(4), pages 553-566.
- Lence, Sergio H. & Hayes, Dermot J., 1994.
"Parameter-Based Decision Making Under Estimation Risk: An Application to Futures Trading,"
Staff General Research Papers
693, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
- Lence, Sergio H & Hayes, Dermot J, 1994. " Parameter-Based Decision Making under Estimation Risk: An Application to Futures Trading," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(1), pages 345-57, March.
- Lapan, Harvey E. & Moschini, GianCarlo, 1994. "Futures Hedging Under Price, Basis and Production Risk," Staff General Research Papers 10041, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
- Buschena, David E. & Zilberman, David, 1994. "What Do We Know About Decision Making Under Risk And Where Do We Go From Here?," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 19(02), December.
- Ronald I. McKinnon, 1967. "Futures Markets, Buffer Stocks, and Income Stability for Primary Producers," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 75, pages 844.
- Ricome, Aymeric & Chaib, Karim & Ridier, Aude & Kephaliacos, Charilaos & Carpy-Goulard, Francoise, 2012. "The role of cash crop marketing contracts in the adoption of low-input practices in the presence of risk and income supports," 126th Seminar, June 27-29, 2012, Capri, Italy 126222, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
- Guo, Zhibo & White, Ben & Mugera, Amin, 2013. "Hedge Effectiveness for Western Australia Crops," 2013 Conference (57th), February 5-8, 2013, Sydney, Australia 152154, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society.
- Trautman, Dawn E. & Jeffrey, Scott R. & Unterschultz, James R., 2013. "Farm Wealth Implications of Canadian Agricultural Business Risk Management Programs," 2013 Annual Meeting, August 4-6, 2013, Washington, D.C. 149881, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Wiley-Blackwell Digital Licensing) or (Christopher F. Baum).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.