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Border Tax Adjustment without Borders: The EU Carousel of VAT Fraud

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  • Silvia Fedeli

    ()
    (Faculty of Economics; Department of Economics and Law, Sapienza - University of Rome)

  • Francesco Forte

    ()
    (Faculty of Economics, Department of Economics and Law, Sapienza - University of Rome)

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    Abstract

    This article focuses on the carousel of VAT fraud consisting in multiple undue VAT rebates for goods exported and re-exported between EU countries. This fraud has been developed as a form of border VAT adjustment since the abolition of the borders within the EU countries. The carousel is modelled as a Nash equilibrium chain-game beginning at the retail stage where fraudsters try to capture an unsatisfied demand for the traded goods by means of a reduction of its final price. This can occur because at the final stage the good can benefit from multiple subsidies deriving from undue VAT rebates and because of the power of the fraudster in affecting the prices of production factors. We explore the effects of the carousel fraud game on intra-community trade and analyse the implications for tax authorities.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Better Advances Press, Canada in its journal Review of Economics & Finance.

    Volume (Year): 2 (2012)
    Issue (Month): (November)
    Pages: 55-70

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    Handle: RePEc:bap:journl:120406

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    Related research

    Keywords: European Union Value Added Tax; Income tax and VAT evasion; VAT carousel; Nash equilibrium fraud-chain;

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    References

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    1. Silvia Fedeli & F. Forte, 2012. "A Game Theoretic Approach to Cross-Border VAT Evasion within EU Member States and its Relationship with the Black Economy," Economic Analysis and Policy (EAP), Queensland University of Technology (QUT), School of Economics and Finance, vol. 42(2), pages 209-220, September.
    2. Stephen C. Smith & Michael Keen, 2007. "VAT Fraud and Evasion," IMF Working Papers 07/31, International Monetary Fund.
    3. Genser, Bernd & Haufler, Andreas, 1996. "Tax competition, tax coordination and tax harmonization: The effects of EMU," Munich Reprints in Economics 20319, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
    4. Sijbren Cnossen, 1998. "Global Trends and Issues in Value Added Taxation," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer, vol. 5(3), pages 399-428, July.
    5. Silvia Fedeli & Francesco Forte, 2011. "EU VAT frauds," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 31(2), pages 143-166, April.
    6. A. Bovenberg, 1994. "Destination- and origin-based taxation under international capital mobility," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer, vol. 1(3), pages 247-273, October.
    7. Fedeli, Silvia & Forte, Francesco, 1999. "Joint income-tax and VAT-chain evasion," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 391-415, September.
    8. Sandmo, Agnar, 2005. "The Theory of Tax Evasion: A Retrospective View," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 58(4), pages 643-63, December.
    9. Marrelli, Massimo, 1984. "On indirect tax evasion," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(1-2), pages 181-196, November.
    10. Basu, Kaushik & Bhattacharya, Sudipto & Mishra, Ajit, 1992. "Notes on bribery and the control of corruption," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(3), pages 349-359, August.
    11. Allingham, Michael G. & Sandmo, Agnar, 1972. "Income tax evasion: a theoretical analysis," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 1(3-4), pages 323-338, November.
    12. Marrelli, M. & Martina, R., 1988. "Tax evasion and strategic behaviour of the firms," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 55-69, October.
    13. Keen, Michael & Mintz, Jack, 2004. "The optimal threshold for a value-added tax," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(3-4), pages 559-576, March.
    14. Ben Lockwood & David de Meza & Gareth Myles, 1995. "On the European Union VAT proposals: the superiority of origin over destination taxation," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 16(1), pages 1-17, February.
    15. Michael Keen, 2000. "VIVAT, CVAT and All That," IMF Working Papers 00/83, International Monetary Fund.
    16. Keen, Michael & Lockwood, Ben, 2006. "Is the VAT a Money Machine?," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 59(4), pages 905-28, December.
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