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Exports and Productivity in Germany

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  • Joachim Wagner

Abstract

Using unique recntly released nationally representative high-quality longitudinal data at the plant level, this paper presents the first comprehensive evidence on the relationship between exports and productivity for Germany, a leading actor on the world market for manufactured goods. It documents that the positive productivity differential of exporters compared to non-exporters is statistically significant, and substantial, even when observed firm characteristics and unobserved firm specific characteristics are controlled for. For West German plants (but not for East German plants) some empirical evicence for self-selection of more productive firms into export markets is found. There is no evidence for the hypothesis that plants which start to export perform better in the three years after the start than their counterparts which do not start to sell their products on the world market. Results for West Germany support the hypothesis that the productivity differential between exporters and non-exporters is at least in part the result of a market driven selection process in which those export starters that have low productivity at starting time fail as a successful exporters in the years after the start, and only those that were more productive at starting time continue to export.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Duncker & Humblot, Berlin in its journal Applied Economics Quarterly.

Volume (Year): 53 (2007)
Issue (Month): 4 ()
Pages: 353-373

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Handle: RePEc:aeq:aeqaeq:v53_y2007_i4_q4_p353-373

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Related research

Keywords: exports; productivity; microdata; Germany;

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References

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  1. Andrew Bernard & Joachim Wagner, 2001. "Export entry and exit by German firms," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 137(1), pages 105-123, March.
  2. Arnold, Jens Matthias & Hussinger, Katrin, 2006. "Exports versus FDI in German manufacturing: firm performance and participation in international markets," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2006,04, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
  3. Edwin Leuven & Barbara Sianesi, 2003. "PSMATCH2: Stata module to perform full Mahalanobis and propensity score matching, common support graphing, and covariate imbalance testing," Statistical Software Components S432001, Boston College Department of Economics, revised 12 Feb 2014.
  4. Delgado, Miguel A. & Farinas, Jose C. & Ruano, Sonia, 2002. "Firm productivity and export markets: a non-parametric approach," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(2), pages 397-422, August.
  5. Judith Giles & Cara Williams, 2001. "Export-led growth: a survey of the empirical literature and some non-causality results. Part 1," The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(3), pages 261-337.
  6. Wagner, Joachim, 2005. "Exports, foreign direct investment, and productivity: Evidence from German firm level data," HWWA Discussion Papers 318, Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWA).
  7. Judith Giles & Cara Williams, 2001. "Export-led growth: a survey of the empirical literature and some non-causality results. Part 2," The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(4), pages 445-470.
  8. Eric J. Bartelsman & Mark Doms, 2000. "Understanding productivity: lessons from longitudinal microdata," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2000-19, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  9. Joachim Wagner, 2005. "Exports and Productivity: A survey of the evidence from firm level data," Working Paper Series in Economics 4, University of Lüneburg, Institute of Economics.
  10. Andrew B. Bernard & J. Bradford Jensen, 1997. "Exceptional Exporter Performance: Cause, Effect, or Both?," NBER Working Papers 6272, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. Lichtenberg, Frank R, 1988. "Estimation of the Internal Adjustment Costs Model Using Longitudinal Establishment Data," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 70(3), pages 421-30, August.
  12. Ricardo A. López, 2005. "Trade and Growth: Reconciling the Macroeconomic and Microeconomic Evidence," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 19(4), pages 623-648, 09.
  13. Jens Matthias Arnold & Katrin Hussinger, 2004. "Export Behavior and Firm Productivity in German Manufacturing: A firm-level analysis," International Trade 0403007, EconWPA, revised 02 Nov 2004.
  14. Robert E. Baldwin, 2000. "Trade and Growth: Still Disagreement about the Relationships," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 264, OECD Publishing.
  15. Andrew Bernard & Joachim Wagner, 1997. "Exports and success in German manufacturing," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 133(1), pages 134-157, March.
  16. Wagner, Joachim, 2002. "The causal effects of exports on firm size and labor productivity: first evidence from a matching approach," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 77(2), pages 287-292, October.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Markus Kelle, 2012. "Crossing Industrial Borders: German Manufacturers as Services Exporters," Development Working Papers 329, Centro Studi Luca d\'Agliano, University of Milano, revised 27 Mar 2012.
  2. Franziska Boneberg, 2011. "The Economic Consequences of One-third Co-determination in German Supervisory Boards, First Evidence for the Service Sector from a New Source of Enterprise Data," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Department of Statistics and Economics, vol. 231(3), pages 440-457, June.
  3. Joachim Wagner, 2007. "Productivity and Size of the Export Market Evidence for West and East German Plants, 2004," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2007-13, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
  4. Maggioni, Daniela, 2010. "Learning by exporting in Turkey: an investigation for existence and channels," MPRA Paper 37157, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  5. Franziska Boneberg, 2010. "The Economic Consequences of one-third Codetermination in German Supervisory Boards: First Evidence for the Service Sector from a New Source of Enterprise Data," Working Paper Series in Economics 177, University of Lüneburg, Institute of Economics.
  6. Joachim Wagner, 2011. "One-third Codetermination at Company Supervisory Boards and Firm Performance in German Manufacturing Industries: First Direct Evidence from a New Type of Enterprise Data," Schmollers Jahrbuch : Journal of Applied Social Science Studies / Zeitschrift für Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, vol. 131(1), pages 91-106.
  7. Wagner, Joachim, 2009. "Offshoring and Firm Performance: Self-Selection, Effects on Performance, or Both?," IZA Discussion Papers 4605, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  8. Lichter, Andreas & Peichl, Andreas & Siegloch, Sebastian, 2014. "Exporting and labor demand: Micro-level evidence from Germany," ZEW Discussion Papers 14-013, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  9. Alexander Vogel & Stefan Dittrich, 2008. "The German turnover tax statistics panel," Working Paper Series in Economics 92, University of Lüneburg, Institute of Economics.
  10. Markus Kelle, 2012. "Crossing Industry Borders: German Manufacturers as Services Exporters," wiiw Working Papers 92, The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw.

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