Widening and Deepening: Reforming the European Union
AbstractThis short paper analyses the tension between "widening" and "deepening" of organizations such as the European Union. Members have the same consumption benefit of reform but weak and strong members differ in their cost of exerting reform efforts. As decisions are taken by unanimity, the reform level is determined by the weakest member. However, strong members can coerce weak members to exert more effort by threatening to form a "club-in-the-club". Widening (bringing in additional members into the Union) can have different effects on deepening (more reform effort). When a new member is stronger than the weakest incumbent member, deepening and widening are complements, that is, the Union-wide reform efforts increase. When a new member is weaker, deepening and widening can be substitutes, and the reform efforts in the Union may fall. Our analysis helps to understand the history of the EU treaties, in particular the differences between enlargement waves such as the Northern vs. the Eastern Enlargement. It also rationalizes the general move from unanimity voting to different types of majority.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by American Economic Association in its journal American Economic Review.
Volume (Year): 98 (2008)
Issue (Month): 2 (May)
Other versions of this item:
- Berglöf, Erik & Burkart, Mike & Friebel, Guido & Paltseva, Elena, 2008. "Widening and Deepening: Reforming the European Union," CEPR Discussion Papers 6672, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- D23 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Organizational Behavior; Transaction Costs; Property Rights
- F15 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Economic Integration
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Mike Burkart & Klaus Wallner, 2000.
"Club Enlargement: Early Versus Late Admittance,"
Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers
0253, Econometric Society.
- Bard Harstad, 2006. "Flexible Integration? Mandatory and Minimum Participation Rules," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 108(4), pages 683-702, December.
- Avinash Dixit, 2003. "Clubs with Entrapment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(5), pages 1824-1829, December.
- Bordignon, Massimo & Brusco, Sandro, 2001.
"Optimal secession rules,"
European Economic Review,
Elsevier, vol. 45(10), pages 1811-1834, December.
- Patrick Legros & Steven A. Matthews, 1992.
"Efficient and Nearly Efficient Partnerships,"
991R, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
- Berglöf, Erik & Burkart, Mike & Friebel, Guido & Paltseva, Elena, 2012.
"Club-in-the-club: Reform under unanimity,"
Journal of Comparative Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 492-507.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Jane Voros) or (Michael P. Albert).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.